Every woman faces climacteric changes. Half the ladies are experiencing this period is very difficult: the extinction of the activity of the reproductive system leads to problems with other organs and systems. Such conditions have the definition of pathological menopause and require the mandatory consultation of a physician with subsequent therapy.
Pathological menopause occurs in every second woman.
Features of pathological menopause in women
Mature women are concerned about the upcoming menopause. Some of the fair sex, it scares, but should not be afraid. The period of menopause and menopause is a natural phenomenon in the life of women, in which there are advantages and disadvantages.
Doctors also highlight the concept of male menopause. It occurs later than in women (after 50 years), takes longer and changes are less pronounced. Often a couple does not notice these changes.
The climacteric period consists of premenopause, menopause and postmenopause. At the first stage, the reproductive system of women begins to gradually fade away: menstruation becomes irregular, their character and quantity change. Such changes last more than one year. For some women, the duration of premenopause may be more than 5 years.
During menopause, the ovaries do not produce female sex hormones, their functioning ceases. This phase is counted from the day of the last menstruation. The duration of menopause is about a year, for which women have no menstruation.
Postmenopause is characterized by complete extinction of the ovaries and the cessation of menstrual bleeding. If everything passes naturally, then this is the period after 50, when the representatives of the weaker sex enter a new life stage.
The onset of climacteric period in women is associated with natural changes in the body or with pathological conditions that led to menopause and menopause. Ovarian removal or other operations that have stopped the functioning of these organs can trigger the onset of menopause at any age. The onset of menopause can also be temporary: if, after therapeutic procedures, ovarian function is restored with time.
Climax at a young age is considered a pathology.
Female menopause can be early, late and physiological. The first two doctors accurately refer to the pathological, and the natural menopause may be such or not. Pathological menopause at any age proceeds with constant complaints from the patient to the general deterioration of the condition.
Early menopause occurs in mature women up to 40 years. The beginning of changes may be due to many reasons:
- Pathologies of the reproductive system.
- Stress states.
- Surgical interventions in the pelvic organs.
The onset of climacteric changes after 40 years can also be accompanied by pathological conditions: diseases of the pelvic organs in severe form, constant stress or great physical exertion.
Late menopause occurs after 55 years. Doctors attribute it to the pathological because of possible serious diseases of the reproductive system, which caused a delay in the natural process of extinction of the reproductive system.
Male menopause occurs later than female
Manifestations of pathological menopause
Symptoms and signs of menopause, a woman may notice long before the onset of menopause. In adulthood, changes begin at the emotional and vasomotor levels:
- Frequent irritability.
- Drowsiness and fatigue.
- Anxiety and depression.
- Hot flushes with copious sweat.
- Problems with pressure and the work of the heart.
- Reduced sexual desire (libido) and others.
A woman may not notice the early signs of menopause, but should know about them. These conditions should be a reason for consultation with a gynecologist.
Later, women begin to be disturbed by problems with the reproductive system: vaginal dryness, itching and burning, bladder pathology, and so on. This affects the full sex life of the couple. External changes of hair, skin, nails and so on are added to these changes.
Doctors include late cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, problems with bone tissue (osteoporosis) and teeth, weight gain, and so on. Women are recommended to consult a gynecologist earlier to alleviate further conditions.
But health problems at this stage should not interfere with the conduct of the usual lifestyle of women. Doctors know modern techniques that will help cope with unpleasant symptoms.
Pressure jumps - a characteristic symptom of menopause
Therapy of pathological menopause
Some women do not consider menopause a threat to their overall health. But doctors insist on a mandatory examination, which will determine the possibility of alleviating the symptoms. The main recommendation for women is not to resort to self-treatment.
The gynecologist will certainly pay attention to the individual characteristics of the patient, and then prescribe treatment. It should be comprehensive. You should not use appointments that came to your friend or relative.
Treatment of pathological menopause is produced in three main ways: non-drug drugs, non-hormonal or hormonal agents. The course also includes such additional recommendations:
- Decreased physical activity.
- The optimal mode of work and rest.
- Minimizing stress.
- Psychological treatment.
- Homeopathy and so on.
If hormone treatment is irrelevant, the gynecologist may prescribe medicinal plants that will relieve the unpleasant symptoms of menopause. For sedative and analgesic herbs include valerian, hawthorn, lemon balm, sage and others.
Modern treatment of pathological menopause is produced with the help of hormonal preparations. Their action is based on the delivery of the missing sex hormone (estrogen) into the body. Under these conditions, the general condition of the patient is easier to keep normal.
Hormonal treatment allows:
- Improve the condition of the skin, hair and nails.
- Normalize the blood flow of the dermis and epidermis.
- Get rid of urination problems.
- Maintain muscle tone and bone marrow.
- Stabilize emotional background and so on.
But such treatment is not prescribed for cancers of the reproductive system and other pathologies that the gynecologist takes into account (fibroids, problems with blood vessels, mental disorders, and so on). The possibility of using the drug is determined only by a doctor.
Climacteric period for all women is different. Most ladies perceive this stage as a new life period with its own pros and cons.
Many suffer from pathological menopause and need additional treatment. Doctors advise you to be attentive to your own body in order to avoid complications of this period.
The main causes of pathological menopause
With the onset of menopause, the ovaries gradually stop developing follicles, an egg cell no longer matures in them, as a result, the female body loses its reproductive function, because there is no ovulation. The intrasecretory activity also decreases, follicles replace connective tissue, which leads to a decrease in ovaries in size.
The amount of gonadotropic hormones increases, as a result of which the amount of female hormones estrogen decreases. What is the main cause of pathological menopause. Estrogens affect the uterus, vagina, mammary glands, bladder, bones, arteries, skin, mucous membranes and brain cells.
Most women go smoothly, they do not feel unpleasant symptoms or manifestations of menopause do not cause discomfort. But there are also such cases when the symptoms are pronounced, which interferes with the normal life of a woman. In pathological menopause, the symptoms are often bright. The most common symptom of menopause, except for the cessation of menstruation are hot flashes.
The duration of an unpleasant symptom can be different (from several seconds to several minutes), and it can appear both during the day and at night. At high tide, a woman begins to feel a high fever in the upper part of her body, then in the chest, on the arms and shoulders, the skin begins to redden, after that - a strong sensation of cold, throws it into sweat. Tides occur due to impaired functions of the autonomic nervous system.
Other manifestations of menopause include:
- excessive sweating, in rare cases there may be a fever,
- headache, dizziness, fatigue, general weakness,
- frequent depressive states, irritability, fear, mood swings,
- high blood pressure
- development of concomitant diseases: deterioration of the condition of bones, obesity, diabetes,
- severe itching and soreness in the vagina during urination,
- discomfort and soreness during intercourse,
- increased urination, urinary incontinence.
It can be said that the symptoms of pathological menopause are similar to normal menopausal period.
What is the danger of pathological menopause?
Pathological menopause in women may be complicated by such diseases as angina pectoris, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diseases of the nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, oncology.
Pathological menopause can pose a threat to the female body, in particular myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, and cancer diseases.
What diagnostic methods are used?
A woman herself may suspect that she has a pathological menopause, when menopause has come before 40 years, or she is already 55 years old, and there is no menopause yet. This is the reason for going to the doctor and passing the diagnosis.
Today, the following methods are used to diagnose pathological menopause:
- history taking, visual inspection,
- examination on the gynecological chair,
- Ultrasound of the internal genital organs, colposcopy,
- laboratory tests of urine, blood and vaginal smears.
If necessary, can be appointed and other methods of examination. As a rule, according to the results of the examination, the doctor can determine the causes that caused the pathological menopause, confirm the diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment to reduce unpleasant symptoms.
What are the treatments?
After the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment, which includes various drugs and traditional medicine. Treatment of pathological menopause is aimed at eliminating its unpleasant manifestations, which is caused by a decrease in the amount of estrogen in the female body.
In most cases, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is prescribed for the treatment of unpleasant manifestations of menopause. These are medicinal preparations with female hormones in the composition, the action of which will help the female body to more easily adapt to the changes. GDZ preparations are of natural and synthetic origin, and they can be selected only by the attending physician individually in each case. It is not recommended to start taking any medicine on your own, even if it helped someone.
HRT helps with severe vaginal dryness and other unpleasant manifestations of menopause, helps to improve the general condition.
HRT is an excellent prevention of problems with the cardiovascular system, osteoporosis and other diseases that can occur during pathological climax. Despite the fact that the effect of HRT is positive in most cases, it is sometimes contraindicated.
Vitamin complexes are also effective in treating pathological menopause, because during this period the female body needs support in the form of valuable vitamins and trace elements. Properly chosen vitamins help strengthen the immune system and reduce unpleasant manifestations of menopause. Such vitamins and minerals are especially valuable: A, group B, C, D, E, magnesium, calcium, boron.
Effective drugs for pathological climax are also homeopathic remedies. They help eliminate estrogen deficiencies and strengthen the female body. Modern homeopathic medicines help reduce the frequency and duration of hot flashes, as well as other unpleasant manifestations of menopause. To homeopathic include such drugs: Klimaksan, Remens, etc.
- Dill water. Helps to cope with the tides, relieves insomnia. Need to take 3 tbsp. spoon dried seeds of dill and pour boiling water. Infuse for one hour, then dilute with water to make a liter of liquid. Drink after a meal at 100 ml. during the day, the number of doses 3-4, and the course of treatment up to 4 weeks.
- Red clover. To prepare the tincture, you need 2 tbsp. spoons of dried raw materials pour 1 tbsp. boiling water and infuse for about 8 hours, strain. Take 50 ml a day before meals.
- Royal jelly. 20 g of flower pollen with honey daily helps to significantly reduce the unpleasant manifestations of menopause.
- Oregano. 2 tbsp. spoon oregano pour in a thermos 2 tbsp. boiling water. Insist 4 hours. Drink as tea during the day.
- Fresh juices from cucumber, carrots, parsley, celery, spinach.
For the prevention of early pathological menopause, HRT is used, but it requires careful medical monitoring to prevent side effects.
A safer preventive method is the use of herbal remedies. But the appointment can also be done only by a doctor.
Among the preventive measures against pathological menopause also need to highlight proper nutrition, the elimination of bad habits, moderate exercise, frequent walks in the fresh air.
Even if pathological menopause was diagnosed, you should not be upset beforehand. Timely diagnosis and properly chosen treatment will greatly alleviate the condition. It is very important to adhere to all recommendations of the doctor and not to self-medicate so as not to aggravate the condition anymore.
Symptoms of pathological menopause
Climax consists of three periods:
- premenopause: the menstrual cycle becomes irregular, it lengthens, bleeding decreases, this stage can last for several years,
- menopause: characterized by the cessation of menstruation, from the moment of the last menstrual bleeding this stage lasts for about a year,
- postmenopause: ovarian function ceases completely, glandular tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue, the uterus and appendages decrease in size, a complete involution of the childbearing system occurs, this period lasts for decades until the woman dies.
In half of the women, other symptoms join the changes in the menstrual cycle, and there are complaints about the state of health. In this case, menopause is considered pathological. The symptoms are rather blurred and non-specific, so they need to be differentiated from other diseases. Layering of the pathological menopause on previously acquired chronic illnesses leads to their weighting and mutually worsens the menopause itself.
Especially bright symptom - the so-called "tides": A feeling of intense heat in the upper body and head, the skin turns red and becomes hot. This state lasts up to several minutes. Women complain of irritability and bad mood, sleep disturbances, chills and sweating, severe dizziness and tinnitus.
Painful urination and urinary incontinence, itching and dry genital organs are noted. Due to changes in metabolic processes, many women gain weight, the functions of other endocrine glands are disturbed, and diabetes or hypothyroidism can begin. Climacteric cardiomyopathy, gastrointestinal pathology, osteoporosis, resulting in bone fragility and frequent fractures are not uncommon.
Drug treatment of pathological menopause
Therapy should be comprehensive and strictly individual. Medicines of various groups and mechanisms of action are used, recommendations on nutrition, regimen and physical activity are given. Herbal medicine methods are widely used.
The basis of drug treatment - this is hormone replacement therapy, which is the main line of therapy: pathogenetic. Since the ovaries themselves no longer produce hormones, the female body must receive them from the outside. These injected drugs contain artificial or natural estrogens, differ in the method of use, dosage and composition.
It is especially important to calculate an individual dose of hormonal drugs, so that it not only provides improved health, does not allow metabolic complications, but also does not have a strong negative effect on the mammary glands and uterus.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is always prescribed for early pathological menopause (up to 40 years), in the presence of concomitant cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, hypogonadism, urogenital and metabolic disorders. Противопоказания к назначению гормонов – острые состояния, обострения хронических болезней, онкология, тромбоэмболия, сахарный диабет в стадии декомпенсации.
Necessary methods of examination, consultation of a cardiologist, neuropathologist, endocrinologist and other specialists before the start of HRT is required.
Hormonal treatment can be of three types.:
- monotherapy (use of either estrogen or progestin): proginova, ovestin, klimar, duphaston, etc.,
- combined (combined cyclical use of progestins and estrogens),
- combined monophasic (continuous use of drugs).
Hormone replacement therapy should be regularly monitored by a physician by measuring the level of estradiol in the blood, pelvic ultrasound, and mammography. The duration of HRT is up to 7 years, only with such a period of use a positive effect is achieved and no complications develop.
But the presence of many contraindications, the high price of drugs, side effects, the negative attitude of many women to HRT necessitates the use of other methods of medical treatment of pathological menopause.
Symptomatic treatment involves the relief of individual manifestations of menopause. Sedatives are used to stabilize the nervous system: bellaspon, novopassit, with hypertension - pressure reducing drugs, with urological pathology - antibiotics and driptan for preventing urinary incontinence.
Drugs with calcium help reduce the manifestations of osteoporosis, with a sharp increase in weight, various statins are necessary, it is imperative to use tonic means and complex vitamins. Partial replacement of hormone therapy may be the use of products from the group of phytoestrogens, the active substance of which is contained in some plants.
Herbal medicine in the treatment of menopause
Various herbs, in addition to phytoestrogens, are used as symptomatic agents in the pathological climax. Voronets, or black cohosh, is used for menstrual disorders, endometriosis, changes in the mammary glands. On its basis, the drug klimadinon, produced in the form of tablets or drops for oral administration, was created.
For the treatment of depression and sleep disorders are used drugs belladonna and ergot: novopassit, belloid. On the basis of Hypericum perforatum, effective sedatives are created, relieving irritability, headache, normalizing sleep and appetite.
Mastodinon It is a complex remedy, which contains Alpine Violet, Prutniak, Tiger Lily, Bitter Bruise. This drug is prescribed for uterine bleeding, painful menstruation, depression and irritability in menopause, for the treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy. The composition of the herbs in the treatment of menopause include hawthorn, valerian, elder, sage, calendula and other plants.
Phytotherapy with menopause is effective, practically has no contraindications and side effects. Its application under the control of a gynecologist always has a positive result. Herbal medicine is widely used by homeopathic doctors, it is an alternative highly effective way in the treatment of pathological menopause.
In addition to accepting pathogenetic and symptomatic agents, a woman should follow recommendations for treatment, hygiene, exercise and nutrition. You need to sleep for at least 7 hours, it is advisable to stay on a permanent job, as usual work duties and staff distract from unpleasant symptoms. Free time is better to devote to light physical exertion, running or walking, morning gymnastics is obligatory.
In pathological climax, rational nutrition is important, which is an important factor in treatment. Since there is a tendency to be overweight, women should limit the intake of fat and light carbohydrates into the body.
Dairy products, as a source of calcium, lean meat, vegetables and fruits, fish of various varieties, mushroom dishes - these are the main foods in menopause.
An early appeal to a gynecologist when complaints appear, careful adherence to all prescriptions and recommendations will help a woman overcome the negative effects of pathological menopause and not be distracted from the rhythm of her usual life.