Health

Critical days for women - physiology

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Menstruation is a process that begins in every girl's body during puberty and accompanies a woman for a rather long period of her life, during which her reproductive function is preserved. One way or another, its beginning is stress for the organism, because often not only the organism, but also the girl herself is not psychologically ready for the so-called transition to adulthood. Sometimes girls just do not know about menstruation, because of which they may have a number of problems.

We will try to understand everything in order.

What is menstruation and when does it start?

Menstruation (or menstruation) is the period of the menstrual cycle, accompanied by the detachment of the mucous layer of the uterus (endometrium) and its release through the vagina. Endometrial rejection is accompanied by bleeding.

The structure of each organism is individual, therefore the first menstruation of each girl begins at different ages. A certain role here is played by the climatic conditions and the teenager’s physique, and, of course, the state of health.

Age for menstruation for the first time from 9 to 14 years is considered normal. However, the menstrual cycle during this period has not yet formed, so the following periods can appear in 2-3 months. This is considered normal, since after the first menstruation the cycle is usually established within 1.5 years.

The average cycle time is 28 days. The norm is the interval of 21-35 days. Some women often cycle failures, that is, menstruation does not begin at the appointed time.

The period of menstruation, more precisely, its duration, depends on many factors. For example, the first menstruation can go only one day. Further, it all depends on the constitution and lifestyle of the girl. Gynecologists say that the normal duration of menstruation is 2-8 days. As a rule, girls with slim and thin body build up are scanty and last 3-5 days, while the ladies “in the body” cycle “stretch” even up to 10 days, while being accompanied by abundant secretions.

Menstrual failure: Is it worth sounding the alarm?

First of all, it is important to note that the menstrual cycle is a rather vague concept. There are no strict numbers and dates - everything is quite individual. Deviation from the “norm” for 1-3 days is allowed. Rarely there are cases when women for a very long time, menstruation begins "day to day." There are many environmental factors and internal factors of the body, shifting the menstrual cycle.

Delay or, on the contrary, premature onset of menstruation may occur as a result of improper nutritional composition, excessive or insufficient volume, change of climatic zone or time zone, strong physical and psycho-emotional stress, and many other reasons. Often, menstruation "late" after the first sexual intercourse. However, if the monthly does not start too long, then there is a serious reason to sound the alarm.

Menstruation of the vagina may not occur due to:

  • pregnancy
  • hormonal disruptions,
  • lactation
  • thyroid dysfunction,
  • endometriosis,
  • the formation of cysts in the ovaries,
  • anorexia, etc.

There may be many reasons, but one way out is to go to the doctor for a full gynecological examination. The female body is unpredictable and fragile, and, therefore, any delay can lead to serious consequences in this situation, up to infertility.

Menstruation lasts for a long time, but at a certain point they stop. The reason for this may be menopause, which you can read about here. Read about one of the most common hygienic diseases - thrush - here.

Pain during menstruation

In many girls, the menstrual period is accompanied by pain in the pelvic area (lower abdomen). They are caused by prolonged sharp contractions of the uterus, which is why pain during menstruation is natural. It can be aggravated by insufficient / excessive physical activity, stress, smoking, overweight.

However, strong and unbearable pain indicate the presence of certain deviations. Do not try to get rid of pain with painkillers - solve the problem. Make an appointment with a gynecologist. As a rule, in the presence of pathologies, menstruation is accompanied by abundant or, on the contrary, too meager secretions.

Slight natural pain can be eliminated by following a few simple rules. Avoid the use of fatty and spicy foods, alcohol, large amounts of dairy products, avoid strong physical exertion, taking a hot bath, as well as going to the sauna or bath. High temperatures will expand the vessels, increasing the amount of discharge. Try to drink more fluids.

Especially good for menstrual pains help herbal teas with raspberries or mint.

Nuances of personal hygiene

Observance of basic hygiene during menstruation is very important. Take a shower daily several times a day, use wet wipes for intimate hygiene. When washing it is better to use a special tool, because it does not cause irritation, does not dry the skin, contains herbal extracts. Suitable and the usual baby soap, which does not have perfumes and dyes.

It is also necessary to change sanitary pads or tampons every 3-4 hours. The bloody environment promotes the reproduction of microbes and bacteria that can be harmful to vulnerable microflora. Before changing, wash your hands with soap or use an anti-bacterial hand gel.

All about critical days for girls

Young girls who will become mothers in the future should know what monthly periods are and what they are for. This cyclical process will accompany them until the completion of reproductive functioning. This article will be told all about menstruation: their duration, frequency of occurrence, changes in the body, which they provoke.

What is the monthly in girls

Before we talk about cyclical physiological features, you need to figure out what menstruation is.

This term designates the cycle stage, which is characterized by desquamation and rejection of the outer layer of the uterus - the endometrium. Monthly is a regular process that starts on the first day of the cycle.

Critical days are often accompanied by discomfort. Therefore, before they are completed, it is difficult for a woman to keep working.

The process of separating uterine endometrium in gynecology is called desquamation. During this period, blood leaves the vagina, which may contain small clots and particles of the endometrium.

After desquamation is completed, the outer uterine layer becomes thicker. Thanks to its compaction, the body creates favorable conditions for the attachment of a fertilized egg.

That is, the main function of critical days is to prepare the body for pregnancy. If conception did not occur, purification becomes their main mission. After completion of the reproductive stage, which occurs at about 45–48 years of age, the endometrium is not separated from the uterus.

The first periods of girls can begin 12 years. In gynecology, they are called "menarche." Most adolescents at this age become sexually mature. That is, the presence of menstruation indicates the readiness of the body to conceive and bear a fetus.

For more information on how menstruation goes, and what happens in the body at this time, read in a separate article on our website.

Type of menstrual flow

Sometimes menstrual periods in girls indicate the development in the body of the pathological process. Therefore, to maintain reproductive functioning, you need to know which excretions are considered normal and which are not.

Classification of menstrual flow:

  1. Littering. Appear predominantly a few days before the beginning of desquamation. Brown colour. If discharge occurs during menstruation, it may indicate erosion of the uterine cervix, ovarian depletion syndrome, polyps or tumors in the genital area and other ailments.
  2. Very scanty. The volume of such secretions does not exceed 35-40 ml. They arise due to hormonal failure. Sometimes scanty periods appear before an important event, such as a wedding, that is, during a period of strong psycho-emotional stress.
  3. With clots. It is not necessary to worry about the presence of clots in the monthly discharge, because in fact it is coagulated blood. They are often formed if the woman leads a sedentary lifestyle.
  4. Abundant. The volume of such secretions - more than 80 ml. Usually they do not pass on the 6th – 7th day. Their presence may indicate oncological disease, uterine polyps, endometriosis. Also a large yield of monthly blood is a symptom of ectopic pregnancy.

The color of normal menstrual flow is bright red. In the second half of the desquamation, they turn brown.

As for leaving the vagina on critical days with a yellow or green foamy liquid, this is a pathology. Its presence may be due to the inflammatory process in the pelvic organs, as well as candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

What happens in the body

On critical days in women, the endometrium is actively rejected from the uterus. This process is accompanied by bleeding from the vagina. Monthly excretion contains enzymes, because of which they do not fold.

The blood flow contributes to the rapid removal of endometrial residues from the body. The amount of fluid depends on the duration of menstruation and other cyclical features.

If the egg has been fertilized, the endometrium is completely renewed. For 9 months, it serves as an additional protection for the fetus.

In the absence of pregnancy, the renewed upper layer of the uterus is secreted from the body along with monthly blood.

Symptoms of critical days

Most women experience discomfort on critical days. Their occurrence is associated with increased hormonal activity at this time.

The main symptoms of menstruation:

  1. Aching or pulling pain in the region of the ovaries (lower abdomen).
  2. Nausea. Sometimes can be accompanied by vomiting.
  3. Breast swelling.
  4. Increased irritability, a tendency to sudden changes in mood.

It is worth noting that not all of the fair sex are faced with this unpleasant symptoms. According to statistics, 45% of women on critical days do not experience discomfort.

Additional signs of desquamation:

  1. Anxiety, apathy.
  2. Pain in the heart.
  3. Frequent urination.
  4. Panic attacks.
  5. Slight fever.

Monthly duration

Menstruation in women go before the end of reproductive functioning, that is, before the onset of menopause.

The duration of the menstrual bleeding period in girls is different. On average, monthly go from 3 to 7 days.

The first desquamation is usually not characterized by abundance and duration. In 12-year-old girls with menarche, the amount of vaginal blood secreted does not exceed 10 ml.

What is the menstrual cycle

Every mature woman regularly faces physiological changes. Monthly (menstrual) cycle is called periodic changes in the female body. Each stage is controlled by hormones.

The frequency and duration of this period

The number of days in one cycle is from 21 to 33. Its average duration is 27–28 days. Every day, under the influence of sex hormones, changes occur in the girl's body. These chemicals monthly prepare the body for pregnancy.

The monthly cycle begins from the first day of desquamation, and ends with the onset of the next critical days.

Cyclic duration depends on the body's production of sex hormones, in particular estrogen and progesterone.

What changes occur during the cycle

Women who want to understand the specifics of their physiological nature, should know what happens during the menstrual cycle in their body and when the critical days begin.

In the first half of this stage, the production of estrogen, one of the main female hormones, increases. This chemical substance not only prepares the body for pregnancy, creating favorable conditions for conception, but also strengthens the bone tissue. However, its main function is endometrial thickening.

In parallel with the increase in the production of estrogen in the ovaries, the follicle grows and develops, which is a small vesicle in which the egg cell is located.

Approximately in the middle of the cycle (on the 14–16th day) the follicle leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube to meet with the sperm cell there. This process is called ovulation. Its main characteristic is the accelerated production of sex hormones, ensuring the creation of favorable conditions for pregnancy.

The highest chances of successful implantation of the embryo exist 2-3 days before the start of ovulation and on the first day of this phase. That is, if during this period the egg cell encounters a sperm cell, it is likely that the woman will become pregnant.

If conception does not occur, menstruation occurs. After the monthly discharge, the endometrium is re-updated.

How and why to keep a calendar

The beginning of the month in girls is marked on the calendar. This is done to control the stability of the cycle. The implementation of the calendar method allows to determine not only the duration of the cycle, but also the possible occurrence of pregnancy.

I.e if the periods do not start by the expected date and the delay is more than 5 days, it is possible that the girl will soon become a mother.

Keeping the menstrual calendar is convenient. With it, you can track cyclical failures. If they have not been provoked by psycho-emotional stress, physical fatigue or other external factors, it is necessary to undergo a gynecological examination. Regular cycle shifts may indicate a pathological process in the body.

What are critical days?

Menstruation, critical days, regulation are one of the components of the menstrual cycle, by the middle of which a full-fledged egg cell matures in the ovaries. After that, ovulation occurs: the egg leaves the fallopian tube, where it can be fertilized. In the case when fertilization has not occurred, the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrium) is rejected, the level of progesterone falls, the next menstruation begins. Menstrual blood is similar to venous, but slightly darker and does not clot.

During puberty, the girls begin to grow breasts, pubic hair and armpits, acne may appear on the face. After 1.5-2 years after the appearance of the first changes in the body, menstruation begins (menarche), which usually falls on the age of 11-12 years. However, this may occur earlier, at 9-10 years old, or later, at 15-17 years old. The later age of onset of regul is a deviation from the norm.

The time when the first periods come, depends on the general physical health of the body, nutrition, past diseases. The hotter the climate of the living environment, the monthly periods come at an earlier age. In girls with a lack of body mass, menstruation begins later than in more complete peers, since adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ.

After the first menstruation, sometimes there is a break up to several months. The girl's body is developing, hormonal changes are underway. The regularity of the cycle is gradually improving.

Menstruation frequency

The menstrual cycle is a natural biological process during which cyclic hormonal changes occur in the female body. From the first day of the appearance of the discharge, a new cycle begins.

Every woman is unique. However, in medical practice there is the concept of normal conditions, which should correspond to the menstrual cycle:

  • duration is from 21 to 35 days (plus or minus 2 days),
  • the cycle is constant (deviations of 1-2 days are allowed),
  • discharge lasts from 3 to 7 days,
  • blood loss during the whole period of not less than 50 ml and not more than 150 ml (including, besides menstrual blood, impurities in the form of vaginal glandular secretions, mucous secretion of cervical glands, endometrial tissue),
  • there are no clots in the menstrual flow (rare clots are allowed in the first two days of bleeding),
  • does not cause severe pain, significant changes in health.

A few days before the arrival of menstruation, due to hormones, the appearance of somatic and emotional reactions, the so-called premenstrual syndrome, is possible. At the physical level, this is expressed in breast tenderness, edema due to fluid retention in the body, constipation, and increased sensitivity to odors.

Emotionally, there is a gratuitous deterioration of mood, tearfulness, increased anxiety, or irritability.

During menstruation, a girl may feel nagging abdominal pains of varying degrees of intensity, sometimes dizziness, headaches, and nausea.

Все эти малоприятные симптомы проходят по окончании данной стадии цикла.

До начала пубертатного периода менструации отсутствуют. During pregnancy, in the postpartum period, during breastfeeding, menstruation is temporarily stopped. The term recovery regula lactating women is different, because it depends on the production of the hormone prolactin. In menopause, menstruation stops completely.

The menstrual cycle clearly reflects the state of women's health. That is why, from the first critical days, girls are advised to record the beginning and end of the discharge, their intensity, and accompanying sensations in a special application on a mobile phone. This information will clearly show the regularity and duration of the cycle. In addition, it is useful at the reception at the gynecologist.

In cases where the discharge is so abundant that the pads need to be changed every hour, when the regulatives come twice a month, when the menstruations disappear after a periodic cycle has been established for several months, the gynecologist must be consulted by the woman. Many women's diseases depend on the hormonal background and primarily affect the regularity and intensity of menstruation.

Personal hygiene

For women, it is very important to maintain intimate hygiene during the entire period when discharge is present. For your own comfort and protection of clothing, sanitary pads should be used. It is advisable to choose not flavored to avoid an allergic reaction.

The "classic" option - gaskets, on the package with which three drops are drawn. They are suitable for use in the period of moderate discharge. If the discharge is abundant, it is recommended to choose pads with an indication of a greater number of drops or nightly, elongated, which protect not only the bottom, but also bed linen.

From a biological point of view, the use of tampons is not justified, because the tampon delays discharge inside. It is permissible to use tampons with abundant secretions, and at the same time they should be changed at least every 4 hours.

In the critical, abundantly “red” days, it is especially not recommended to take a bath, go to the bath, swim in the pool or open water bodies. The bleeding, the accompanying increased moist heat in the perineum is a favorable breeding ground for bacteria. Optimal will take a daily shower and wash 2-3 times a day.

Whether to lead a sex life with bleeding, each girl decides on her own, having discussed the possibility with a partner. Doctors recommend to abstain from sex in the first few days. In any case, it is desirable to use a condom. During this period, he is not a means of protection from pregnancy, but a means of protection against possible infection of the vagina.

Recommendations for the period of monthly

Critical days are an integral part of life for girls and women. To feel comfortable during this period will allow moderate exercise. They help maintain muscle tone and reduce pain. However, during menstruation, abdominal exercises and upturned poses (“birch”, handstand, headstand) are strictly contraindicated.

Alcoholic beverages and spicy foods are not recommended because they increase uterine bleeding due to a rush of blood to the abdominal cavity. A moderate diet will balance the weight that a woman gains during the second phase of the cycle, when her appetite increases and fluid is retained in her body. In addition, healthy food will have a positive effect on digestion, reduce gas formation, improve skin condition.

Lovers sunbathing should take into account that during menstruation the production of skin pigment - melanin, which is responsible for a beautiful tan, is reduced. Therefore, a visit to the tanning salon will not bring the desired result.

The work of the female reproductive system affects her well-being, psychological state and appearance. Top secret information about critical days is given by the rule: if a particular woman has the same cycle time, this means that she has no hormonal problems, and the possible fluctuations in the level of hormones according to test results are diurnal. In other cases, consultation with a doctor is necessary.

Menstruation process

Every woman in the world faces menstruation from the moment of maturation of her sexual system until the onset of old age. The process of menstruation takes place in certain cycles, and consists in the repulsion of the mucous tissue located on the surface layer of the uterus (or on the endometrium). At the same time the mass of blood is allocated. This is the menstruation, received in popular language the name of menstruation. They were called so because they flow every month. The entire reproductive term in the life of the fair sex is associated with menstruation. It begins in adolescence, and completely stops at the time when menopause occurs.

About 70% of women constantly experience discomfort during menstruation, expressed as pain in the lower abdomen. Why is this happening? Often the pain is palpable before the onset of bleeding. They are cramping in nature, sometimes flow into aching inguinal pain, sometimes even give to the sacrum and lumbar region.

This type of pathology gynecological type is considered the most common. When the bleeding begins, the pain can increase significantly, which affects the woman's well-being. Her mental and emotional state in such a period is unstable. 10% of women experience severe pain, due to which they even lose the ability to work until they are completely attenuated.

The scientific concept of menstruation

All the fair sex in a certain period (in puberty) discover a new phenomenon - menstrual cycle. Everyone in high school highlights the structure of the human genital organs, and in women it is the internal genitalia - the vagina and uterus in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. The female cycle is a repetitive process of the body producing sexual gametes, eggs, necessary for the continuation of the genus. The inside of the uterus is lined with a special membrane, the endometrium, to which, according to physiological laws, an egg cell must be attached during fertilization. Each time at the peak of the female cycle, when the probability of becoming pregnant is great, the endometrium is greatly thickened, and then the growing layers of this epithelium are forced to die off if conception has not occurred.

Vaginal bleeding

Bleeding from the vagina during menstruation - this is the exfoliating inner epithelium of the uterus, which simply renews the integuments with new ones, while at the same time, revealing exposed capillaries in the walls of the uterus. Due to the accompanying enzymes, blood during menstruation is very different from normal, has a thick texture, dark color and almost does not clot. Soon a new endometrium appears in the uterus in place of old integuments, and bleeding and discomfort cease within a few days.

Thus, the "monthly" is the period of the menstrual cycle, when there is an update of the internal uterine covers - the endometrium. Therefore, the beginning of the female cycle is usually counted from the first day of menstruation.

Menstruation cycle and its phases

The whole essence of menstruation is to fully prepare the body for fertilization and childbearing. The menstruation cycle consists of two phases, in the middle of which ovulation occurs:

  • The first is called follicular. During it, all the forces of the body are aimed at the development of the follicle. From it the body of the egg is released, and the egg after fertilization should eventually become a fetus. All changes are started from the first day of blood flow during menstruation. The phase ends with ovulation. During this period, estrogen is intensively produced in the body, which in fact takes up almost half of the full cycle.
  • The second phase, scientists have called luteal. Another name is the phase of the yellow body. As the name implies, during this period a woman forms a yellow body where the egg cell should go. After ovulation happens, this phase begins. It lasts until the yellow body lives, and its life lasts up to 14 days. At this time, the body tries by all means to maintain hormonal balance at the proper level (the hormone progesterone and estrogen). To prepare for the onset of pregnancy, hormones are also exuded by the corpus luteum. When it starts to decompose, pain syndromes are possible here.

Many may be interested in how ovulation proceeds, and what it is. This is the process by which an egg cell prepared for fertilization comes out of the follicle. It enters the peritoneal cavity, after which it moves through the pipes to the uterine cavity.

When a girl reaches puberty, her organs store about 400,000 eggs. Surprisingly, these eggs were already laid when the girl was a fetus in the womb. Ovaries keep them in themselves from the very birth of a woman.

During puberty, the first ovulation happens a little later. The last ovulation occurs during menopause, after menstrual function fades. When the egg is fertilized and the woman becomes pregnant, ovulation stops for this period. Sometimes it does not occur at the time of breastfeeding, but not all nursing mothers.

As evidenced by the nationwide name of the women's critical days - "monthly", the menstrual cycle usually fits into periods of approximately equal to one month. Due to the characteristics and individuality of each girl, the time interval between the same stages of menstruation may vary. The average cycle lasts four weeks, or twenty-eight days, sometimes the rate can be from three to five weeks. The menstruation itself varies in duration from three to seven days. It may seem that the constant abundant blood loss at this time will have a bad effect on the body, but in fact it is quickly replenished and almost harmless.

How are the periods?

During menstruation, the female body rejects the functional layer located on the surface of the uterus (endometrial). This happens in conjunction with the flow of blood.

The excreted blood during menstruation is not capable of clotting, like ordinary blood from blood vessels, and differs from it in a more saturated dark color. Menstrual blood acquired this property due to the fact that it contains a certain amount of specific enzymes.

During menstruation, the uterus contracts at a rhythmic pace. So she manages to push out unnecessary elements from her cavity that have already served a useful service life. The presence of receptors in the abdominal cavity that are sensitive to irritating factors is peculiar to few representatives of the fair sex, they are activated by each contraction of the uterus. This causes pain.

Other women tend to have a slightly different position of the uterus (it is, as it were, rejected a little bit back). At the same time, the body puts pressure on the nerve endings, which is why discomfort arises in the groin area, in the sacrum or lumbar region.

Problems that increase pain during menstruation

A pronounced pain syndrome will be present during the menstruation period in those women who have experienced one of the following problems:

  • the uterus is wrong,
  • endometriosis is developed (a disease in which uterine cells penetrate into other organs),
  • infantilism of the sexual type, that is, the development of the body of the uterus is not enough.
  • If the lady’s central nervous system is highly irritable, it can also affect the increase in pain.
  • The revitalization of the thyroid gland directly affects the severity of menstruation. In addition to the pain, significant weight loss and insomnia join.
  • Some experts from their practice point out that some women who have an intrauterine device (contraceptive device) in their bodies experience pain during menstruation. This can be explained not only by the fact that there is a foreign body in the body, but also by the fact that this body is aimed at producing prostaglandins.

Symptoms and nature of pain can say a lot. There are many signs of various diseases. Often, acute painful sensations during menstruation indicate the presence in the body of a woman of the inflammatory process or its defeat by a virus.

Increased pain in endometriosis - evidence that some pathogenic processes took place in the body not so long ago, or it foreshadows further deterioration of health due to an untreated illness, which, by the way, is difficult to treat.

If a woman is concerned about pains in the lower part alive after the completion of the bleeding, then she urgently needs to visit a doctor. Pain may indicate a course of a complex inflammatory disease affecting the tissues of the organs of the reproductive system. Often it ends with further sterility.

How are pains classified?

Before making a diagnosis, because of what the patient has a stomach ache during menstruation, the doctor needs to see the full picture - to conduct tests, interviews and research. To determine the nature of the pain syndrome and its causes, doctors introduced the terms primary pain and secondary.

To the first they attributed the pain in which the woman's body is not affected by any pathologies. This type of pain, in fact, is merely a symptom, indicating a completely natural failure of the level of neural regulation of the body. If a woman experiences primary pains, then there is nothing urgent and there is no need for interventions. Pain symptoms themselves go away in three days.

Secondary pain are those that appear as a result of obvious disturbances in the body or course in the pelvic area of ​​pathological processes. Such pains indicate the presence of various diseases on the gynecological orientation. In some cases, lower abdominal pain is one symptom indicating a difficult course of the disease.

Pain can not be treated without consulting and doctor appointments. As a therapy, the doctor may prescribe the following:

  1. taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is ideal for those who do not want to get involved with hormonal drugs, especially at a young age. These drugs have an analgesic effect, from which the pain is significantly reduced. Together with pain, the amount of prostaglandins decreases,
  2. taking oral contraception, normalizing the content of hormones in the body and improving during menstruation. This tool has an overwhelming effect on the ovulation process, thereby reducing the amount of discharge during menstruation,
  3. administration of progestin drugs containing progesterone and testosterone in the required doses, as well as their derivatives. These drugs do not affect ovulation, but have a good effect on secretory changes in the endometrial layer.

Failure of the menstrual cycle

Even with the same girl, instability in the development of a cycle is possible. Of course, this is not a completely normal reaction of the body, which can be caused by a negative influence from the outside or by the girl herself. For example, stress and stress, depression, bad habits, changes in various factors, such as the climate or body mass of a girl, diseases and medication, arising from the above reasons, hormonal disruptions, termination or absence of sexual relations, a miscarriage, can also have a negative impact on the menstrual periods. causes of unstable duration of the female cycle.

Physiological basis

The command power over the menstrual period has the pituitary gland brain. It produces and secretes hormones into the blood to which the entire body responds, including the female sex glands - the ovaries that are present in every newborn. From the very beginning of life, the ovaries contain approximately one hundred undeveloped eggs.

  • In the first half of the menstrual cycle, called ovulation, the next egg cell matures.
  • In the middle of the cycle, the release of one egg from the follicle (storage bubble) and its further movement towards the uterus through the fallopian tubes.

If during the period of ovulation intercourse took place, then the egg cell is likely to be fertilized, and conception will occur. Otherwise, the separation of the special integuments, the endometrium, which was not required for the fixation of the egg cell, begins, and menstruation occurs according to the scheme described above.

The very first menstruation in the life of a girl, which is called menarche, appears on average at 12 years old (the acceptable normal range is from 11 to 14 years). This means that the girl becomes able to continue the race. Menarche, as a rule, appears approximately two years later, when the mammary glands began to increase in the girl.

By old age (about fifty years), the ovaries stop producing eggs, and menopause begins. The arrival of menopause, as well as menstruation itself, is a purely individual period, which can be accelerated by diseases and medical intervention, and also postponed due to the extreme development and good condition of the body. За отсутствием необходимости в течение нескольких лет дестабилизируется и окончательно прекращается повторение менструального цикла. Женщина, достигшая периода менопаузы, уже не способна забеременеть и родить ребёнка. Поскольку возраст наступления менопаузы варьирует у каждой из женщин в зависимости от их индивидуальности, то в такое время следует заверить это, обратившись к гинекологу.For menopause, you can take a pregnancy that a woman could no longer expect, so in the absence of menstruation for several months it is recommended to visit a doctor without fail.

Hygiene products: gaskets

Since menstruation is not a very comfortable and not very pleasant phenomenon, critical days require special training from the girl, at least in terms of hygiene. To combat such a nuisance, special hygienic means were invented: gaskets, tampons, menstrual cups. But the predecessors of modern women had to use for such purposes simple gauze fabrics or rags, special belts with removable cotton linings or even non-woven underwear. But now there is a rather extensive selection of modern proposals that a girl herself can make by virtue of her preferences.

The first means is a self-adhesive disposable pad, which is placed on the underwear, so that the menstrual flow from the perineum is absorbed into it. After several hours (6 is recommended), the spent gasket is discarded and replaced with a clean one. There are both menstruation pads for blood collection and their miniature versions - daily panty liners that also serve for hygiene during the rest of the female cycle. A huge range of products can make girls lose their head when choosing suitable pads.

When choosing a gasket usually pay attention to the following characteristics:

  • "Drops" - This is a conditional badge on the package, describing the ability to absorb secretions Gaskets with a large number of "drops" will do well with copious amounts of discharge, for example, in the first days of menstruation or at night, for a comfortable sleep. Gaskets with one or two "droplets" will be appropriate and not wasteful to use in the next, last critical days.
  • The size - Daily pads are quite small and can fit on miniature underwear, while daily pads for critical days are more voluminous and noticeable. There are special elongated night pads with extra wings for comfort during sleep and better protection against leaks in front and behind.
  • "Wings" - These are thin adhesive edges on the sides of the gasket, which securely fix it on the laundry and do not allow it to move even while driving. Removing the wings is just as easy without harm to underwear. Due to this, the gasket covers the entire width of the linen and practically protects it from side leaks.
  • Contact surface - This is a gasket covering adjacent to the skin. Different brands produce gaskets with different types of surfaces, for example, cotton or mesh. Soft coatings provide greater comfort and breathability, mesh benefit in reliability and quality of absorption.
  • Aroma - Very many gaskets are treated with a special fragrance with a pleasant smell, which slightly masks the specific smell of menstrual flow. However, some women prefer to use pads without any smell, making a choice only predominantly in favor of the most important function - cleanliness. Also, "cream" aromatic impregnation can cause allergies.

Gaskets are good because they allow the discharge freely to leave the vagina and not to accumulate inside. So they save from the possibility of the development of bacteria and infections in such a vulnerable time. It is impossible not to recognize some discomfort from wearing pads, especially in the hot season or in tight clothes, but you can get used to this and avoid inconvenience, keeping a close eye on your hygiene during critical days.

Hygiene products: gynecological swabs

It is adapted to the needs of women analog, who came from surgical medicine. They are formed of absorbent (absorbent) material and are small "sticks" with the same division of the "droplets". Tampons are more convenient because they are immersed to be absorbed directly into the vagina and are almost not felt in motion, but some still need to be insured with daily pads on linen. There are applicator strings that help introduce a tampon. Using tampons, you can allow yourself to swim, if you immediately get rid of the old and replace it clean when you get out of the water.

You should choose the size of tampons and use them strictly according to the instructions. Cannot use tampons at night! As it is required to replace them every 4 hours, to avoid the return to the body of toxins from clotted blood, which can lead to a real poisoning. Also, do not use tampons in advance, in anticipation of menstruation.

Hygiene products: menstrual cup

Capa, or menstrual calyx, is a little-known means for collecting discharges, which is most often a soft silicone container that is placed in the vagina. It accumulates, and does not absorb blood, and can be applicable both during the day and at night, it is completely inert and safe if it is emptied in time. Washing of the tray is required every 3-6 hours. Such devices are quite expensive, but can be used for a very long time, up to 10 years long, which considerably pays for their price.

Menstrual problems

During menstruation, it is normal to experience a pulling sensation in the lower abdomen, in the lower back, sharp pains in the pelvis. At this time you can take painkillers, but you should not abuse the formulation and make it a habit. Discomfort can be avoided by massaging, warming the abdomen (warm, not hot water heater or bath!), Decoction of mint leaves, raspberries, lemon balm, chamomile flowers, it is good to take a comfortable posture and avoid stress.

Girls suffer menstruation in different ways, but in case of intolerable pain, of course, consult a gynecologist. Perhaps something is disturbing your hormones or general health, and a specialist will prescribe medications and help you cope with the painful cycle and premenstrual syndrome.

Special deviations occur when the menstrual cycle is severely disturbed, in such cases urgent consultation with a doctor is also necessary. For example, the onset of menarche at 15 and an increase in the mammary glands at 13 in a girl are the threshold period when, in the absence of any changes, one must be wary. If a fifteen-year-old girl has not yet come up with menstruation, the case may be sexual infantilism - the lag of sexual development. With a baseless absence of menstruation for three months, there is a risk of amenorrhea or even more serious diseases. There is also an excessively torn period between menstruation of more than 35 days or their duration of more than a week, severe pain that is not affected by analgesics - a serious reason to immediately visit a doctor. Be sensitive and attentive to your body, be sure to keep track of the days in the so-called menstruation diary or mark the dates of your cycle in the calendar.

Signals of the body that cannot be ignored

A woman should visit a gynecologist at least 2 times a year.

Immediately you should consult a doctor when you notice one of the following symptoms:

  • menstrual pain lasting longer than usual
  • a sharp increase in pain for no apparent reason
  • the volume of excreted blood increased, one pad in 60 minutes could not cope with them,
  • increased sweating
  • temperature rise
  • pain in the joints
  • unusual discharge with an unpleasant odor, pain when urinating, as well as the difficulty of this process, itchy feeling and discomfort in the perineum - all this indicates a possible infection of the genital tract.

One cannot do without an ambulance call if during the menstruation the following occurred in addition to the appearance of severe pain with the woman:

  • loss of consciousness,
  • dizzy,
  • cutting pains in the groin, because of them the girl is forced to writhe and bend,
  • specks of gray tint are visually noticeable in the excreted blood.

It is likely that a woman is just expecting a child. In any case, an accurate diagnosis will be made by the doctor, having done the seeding on the flora.

What every woman should know about menstruation

If we take into account the fact that you practically read this article to the end, then you most likely had pain during menstruation. You know firsthand about the following things:

  • the occurrence of pain in the lumbar region and chest,
  • pain when having sex with a partner
  • the appearance of an unpleasant smell in the crotch,
  • discomfort when urinating,
  • vaginal discharge with small or massive blood clots.

If you have noticed at least two of the following signs, ask yourself a question - do you like it and are you ready to put up with it further? How much money have you spent on inefficient methods of diagnosis and treatment? Do not self-medicate, and even more so, do not tolerate the pain! Refer to qualified professionals, and they will help you quickly and accurately normalize your menstrual cycle.

Memo for critical days

  • Visit the shower whenever possible twice a day to ensure intimate hygiene and flush sweat, which during menstruation is released many times more abundant.
  • Refrain from stress and physical exertion. Sometimes critical days do not interfere with life to go on as usual, but it is better not to lift weights and to be protected from colds, because the body is weak at this time.
  • The heat will have a beneficial and soothing effect, but at this time a hot sauna and a bath, a very hot bath are prohibited. Too high temperatures can increase bleeding and make you feel worse.
  • You should not agree to any surgical intervention, since blood does not coagulate during menstruation.

Summing up, let's say that menstruation is a natural phenomenon characteristic of all healthy and birth-capable women. Feelings are uncomfortable and, sometimes, painful, well-being often worsens, and you have to endure critical days at home in the arms of the rug and with painkillers at hand. If you properly treat the features of your body, you can help him out of such troubles. You will be helped by educational materials about the physiological features of a woman, gynecological consultations, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and playing sports. In order for menarche not to come as a surprise, mothers should communicate in advance with their daughters on this topic, without fail in a delicate and calm tone.

What you need to know about critical days

Critical days, what is it, how to survive them calmly and painlessly? The issue of menstruation is very important for young girls. They are afraid that someone may notice that they have “these” days, that it will be too painful, it is impossible to go to school, or that the average length of critical days they will have is long, and the allocation is abundant. There are many fears. And they are quite reasonable. Each mother should bring to her daughter the following nuances of this stage of her growing up.

The first critical days for girls (menarche) are usually at the age of 12-14 years. Usually at the same age as their mothers or a little earlier. Before menarche, girls show signs of puberty - pubic hair appears, in the armpits, the figure becomes feminine. And just before the onset of bleeding, a few days before, there may be acne on the skin of the face and body. Monthly spotting is a signal that a woman’s body is already or very soon ready for pregnancy. This is a kind of transition from a child to an adult period of life. Nevertheless, pregnancy at such an early age is extremely undesirable, since the body of a young girl is not yet ready for such heavy loads and trials.

Menstruation in women occur with different duration and intensity, that is, it is individual. But on average, normal menstruation lasts at least 3 days and no more than 7. At the same time, a woman loses no more than 50-60 grams of blood. If there are discrepancies with these figures - you need to consult with your doctor.

Naturally, as women’s critical days last, so much hygiene is needed. For young girls recommend laying. The specific firm is unimportant. But it is necessary that the hygiene product was odorless (did not contain fragrances), in order to avoid allergic reactions. You can start with the classic "three-drop" gaskets. And then, if necessary, abundant secretions, change them to more absorbent. Hygienic tampons can also be used for virgins, but this is not very convenient, moreover, this hygienic tool needs to be replaced frequently, otherwise there may be sad consequences in the form of toxic shock.

Difficult questions about critical days (video):

Answers to difficult questions about critical days.

2013-06-05T00: 00: 00

What can not be done with monthly, so as not to harm the body? Doctors recommend these days not to engage in active sports, do not swim, do not take a bath. You shouldn’t exclude physical exertion, it is rather harmful.

One can hear different opinions about whether it is possible to have sex on critical days, including from doctors. In the early days of menstruation, sex life is better to postpone. 2-3 days at least abstain. And then you can, but it is desirable to use a condom. Hence another question arises - is it possible to get pregnant on critical days? This is unlikely, since most women ovulate no earlier than the 12th day of the cycle. Well, sperm live in the female genital tract at best 3 days. But in this case the condom is not necessary as a contraceptive, but a guarantee that the infection that a partner may have will not get into the uterus, ajar during menstruation, and there will not be an inflammatory process - endometritis.

Meals on critical days should be moderate. Since in the second phase of the cycle a woman has time to gain up to 1 kilogram of weight, her appetite is increased at this time. And during menstruation, you can arrange a fasting day. A woman’s weight during critical days may gradually decrease as edemas pass, which were previously provoked by a large progesterone production. Excess fluid goes away, legs become slimmer, gas formation disappears, we see a smaller figure on the scales.

There is only one unclear question connected with the spiritual life - is it possible to go to church during critical days or not? On this account there are many opinions. But most women try not to attend church during bleeding days. Although, of course, no one will know about it, even if the ban is broken. Nevertheless, believers try to follow the rules.

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