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Dizziness, the causes of which are associated with a violation of the vestibular apparatus or the development of heart disease, psyche, blood vessels, is a kind of illusion of the mobility of the surrounding world or one’s own body. Very often, dizziness occurs along with symptoms such as vomiting and nausea. Let us consider in more detail what diseases are accompanied by a similar symptom and how it can be cured.
Why does dizziness occur?
The reasons for this may be many. Young people experience symptoms such as headache and dizziness, when drinking a large dose of alcohol, or when a sudden change in body position occurs. In older people, the symptom may indicate the development of a more serious disease. That is why with the systematic manifestation of dizziness and the joint occurrence of other unpleasant symptoms, it is recommended to consult a specialist.
The main reasons that are accompanied by a similar symptom are as follows:
- development of a neurological disease
- otolaryngological disease,
- spinal pathology development,
- the presence of heart disease or blood vessels
- development of metabolic disease and medication,
- diagnosis of psychogenic disease.
The development of neurological and otolaryngological diseases
With such pathologies, dizziness is a consequence of a violation of the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear, damage to the nerve fiber that conducts signals to the brain, a violation of the vestibular nucleus, other structures in the nervous system that help maintain balance. It should be noted that dizziness can appear only with a unilateral lesion, and, if the lesion is bilateral, the symptom does not occur.
Many researchers agree that there is a connection between neurological and otolaryngological causes. There is a division of causes into central and peripheral, taking into account the location of the causative organs.
Peripheral causes are:
- injury to the inner ear (for example, it can be a concussion, perilymphatic fistula, formed after the injury),
- inflammation in the inner ear and the vestibular apparatus can be considered a complication of the flu, dizziness is a symptom of which (nausea and vomiting also occur, which are present for 2-3 days),
- development of vestibular neuritis (the cause of occurrence is the effect of the virus, autoimmune or vascular pathologies),
- a neoplasm that is localized in the region of the inner ear,
- ischemic disease of the inner ear,
- the development of Meniere's disease, and fluid accumulates in the region of the inner ear, irritation of the vestibular apparatus occurs, dizziness, nausea,
- the development of otosclerosis, with the growth of bone in the middle ear, which can involve in the lesion and the inner ear.
The reasons that are associated with the central nervous system include the development of cerebral stroke, neoplasms of the vestibular apparatus, the course of multiple sclerosis, migraine, epilepsy, vertebro-basilar insufficiency in the body.
The development of diseases of the spine
The next cause of such symptoms as dizziness is osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
Cervical osteochondrosis is accompanied by the appearance of dizziness not only with a sharp turn of the head, but also with its slight movement, uncomfortable position, active exercise, or after sleeping on a high pillow. Vertigo with osteochondrosis most often occurs episodes, but may be present on a permanent basis.
As a rule, cervical osteochondrosis is accompanied by such symptoms as nausea, headache, fainting, ringing in the ears, pale skin in the face or, on the contrary, its redness, increased sweating. Dizziness can last for a couple of minutes and several hours, which can be explained by the peculiarities of the person’s general condition, as well as by the source of the disease.
The vertebrae in the cervical spine are too small, which cannot be said about the vertebrae in other departments. Despite this, the vertebrae of the neck take on a very large load, namely, the retention of the head, so the cervical region is exposed to osteochondrosis, one of the symptoms of which is dizziness. Even with a small tension of the muscles or a slight displacement of the vertebrae, the vessels are stifled and the nerve endings are compressed. The result - dizziness.
The development of cardiovascular diseases
Often, headache and dizziness are the first symptoms of heart or vascular disease. The main cause of the symptoms lies in the insufficient supply of the necessary volume of blood to the brain area, which, in turn, explains the incomplete blood supply to the brain with oxygen. At the same time, brain cells are poisoned by decay substances that are not washed out by blood.
Headaches are accompanied by an increase in pressure in cardiovascular diseases. In some cases, hypertension occurs without symptoms, but this does not mean that it does not need to be treated, because such a disease can cause myocardial infarction.
In addition to dizziness, the temperature may rise, fever occurs, which is typical of such pathologies as myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis. Also, a person may lose his appetite and interest in any food, sleep badly at night, be restless and anxious, and nausea may be present.
If such symptoms and suspicion of cardiovascular disease occur, it is not recommended to wait until complications appear, but you should immediately contact a specialist.
The development of metabolic disorders and taking certain drugs
Such a sign of metabolic disorders, such as dizziness, is rare, and if it does, it is very difficult to determine the cause. How favorable the prognosis will be depends on the nature of the pathology and the degree of correction of the metabolic disorder.
If dizziness is caused by diabetes mellitus, this symptom can be eliminated only by correct treatment of the underlying disease. With the help of diabetes correction, it is possible to reduce the severity of a symptom, and in some cases, completely eliminate it.
Dizziness may occur after taking certain medications. As a rule, these are anticonvulsants, sleeping pills and some tranquilizers. In that case, if the effect of the medicine reduces the pressure, the person has dizziness and a feeling of emptiness in the head, a violation of movement coordination. Such symptoms are present throughout the entire period of use of the drug and go away after stopping its intake.
To prevent the development of symptoms that may occur when using drugs, it is necessary to study all the side effects of the drug. The generally accepted tactic is considered to be a gradual cessation of taking the medicine with this effect.
If dizziness is caused by the intake of anticonvulsants that control epileptic seizures, the drugs are replaced with alternative ones. If there is an addiction to a used drug from the group of benzodiazepines, it is recommended to cancel it very slowly.
As a rule, after withdrawal or replacement of a medication that causes a symptom such as dizziness, the symptoms regress.
The development of psychogenic diseases
Mental shock, as a rule, is accompanied by the occurrence of dizziness and headache. After strong experiences, tensions, depression, experienced fear, loss of a loved one, a symptom may occur, and if a person has any innate physiological problems, this is only an impetus to the development of many pathologies.
It is not recommended for the person himself to deal with his problems and anxieties alone with himself. It is necessary to share experiences with loved ones who may help solve the problem and eliminate unrest.
Psychogenic vertigo is characterized by such signs, which are paramount:
- "Intoxication" of consciousness
- anxiety, anxiety,
- darkening, veil before eyes,
- incoordination, fear of falling,
- noise in ears,
- feeling short of breath.
As a rule, the appearance of such symptoms is unexpected, but over time, when a psychogenic situation recurs, a person notices why and at what point dizziness occurs.
If you suddenly begin to feel dizzy, the first rule to be observed is to calm down. Panic in this case will not lead to anything good.
If there is severe dizziness, you need to sit on a chair, focus on any object in front of you. Closing eyes is not recommended. If this method is not effective, and besides, there was pain in the heart, abdomen, numbness of the extremities, you must call a doctor. Prior to the arrival of the ambulance, it is recommended to lie down, not moving, not turning his head.
In the case of severe dizziness, all tight clothes are removed from the patient, thereby ensuring the flow of air. Following the patient laid on the bed so that the head, neck, shoulders lay on the pillow. This situation helps to prevent the inflection of the arteries of the spine.
Systemic vertigo is treated with antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives. Also prescribed means that eliminate vomiting and nausea.
One of the effective ways to eliminate the symptom is vestibular gymnastics in case of vertigo, which is more effective in the non-progressive state, as well as in peripheral vertigo.
The effect of a gymnastics course will depend on the following factors:
- the age of the patient
- the time elapsed since the previous attack,
- qualifications of a gymnastics physician,
- the presence or absence of anxiety.
To prevent vestibular disorders, it is recommended to observe a healthy lifestyle, to exclude substances that adversely affect the body, as well as alcohol, smoking, drugs. Daily exercise and morning exercises have a positive effect on human health in general.
The main rule for the prevention of such a symptom is the timely detection and treatment of diseases that may be accompanied by dizziness.
Causes of Vertigo
The main reason for the constant sensation of vertigo is the work of those centers in the brain that are responsible for balance and orientation in space. These divisions are the centers in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. From the peripheral nerve endings in the muscles, joints, and skin, information enters the brain, where it is processed with lightning speed and a response signal is sent.
If in one of the systems that are involved in the transmission or processing of information about the world and body condition, a malfunction occurs, then vertigo occurs. Thus, the disease is divided into peripheral and central.
However, the brain is not always the cause of dizziness. Sometimes some diseases of the body are accompanied by a strong vertigo:
- The inflammatory process in the inner ear.
- Meniere's disease.
- Diseases of the cervical spine, for example, osteochondrosis.
- Vestibular neuronitis.
- Benign positional paroxysmal dizziness.
- Paroxysmal conditions.
- Posttraumatic syndrome.
- The defeat of the vestibular nerve.
- Damage to the structures of the posterior cranial fossa.
You must be examined by an endocrinologist, a neurologist, a therapist and an otolaryngologist to find out the causes of dizziness.
The central vertigo is constant, gradually developing and mild. His symptoms — palpitations, nausea, sweating — are mild, and there is no hearing loss. When treating this type of vertigo, recovery occurs very slowly and gradually.
The causes of the central vertigo are called:
- Multiple sclerosis.
- Disorder of cerebral circulation.
Many scientists agree that the central vertigo can be caused even by anxiety and severe stress, that is, to have a psychogenic character.
Peripheral vertigo begins very quickly and brightly, and the symptoms are difficult for patients to endure. It is characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting, increased sweating, frequent heartbeat, and low blood pressure.
The reasons for the development of peripheral vertigo, scientists call various pathologies in the inner ear:
- The deposition of calcium salts in the structures of the inner ear, which lead to positional benign vertigo in a certain position of the body for a few minutes.
- Impaired blood circulation.
- The increase in pressure in the inner ear (which until then could have occurred in the form of hearing loss and tinnitus).
- Toxic effect on the shells of the inner ear with tobacco, alcohol, aspirin, furosemide, some antibiotics.
- Ear injuries.
- Inflammation in the labyrinth of the inner ear after a recent infectious or inflammatory disease.
- Blurred vision
- Damage to the auditory nerve.
- Arthrosis of the cervical spine.
If peripheral vertigo is detected, then the patient must undergo an examination by an ENT specialist.
Common symptoms of vertigo are:
- Blanching of the skin.
- Pressure jumps.
- Excessive perspiration.
- Tachyarrhythmia or bradycardia.
Before treatment, it is necessary to diagnose the disease by using:
- Nuclear magnetic resonance.
- Ophthalmologic examination.
- Audiographic study.
- X-rays of the cervical spine.
- Doppler ultrasound of the main parts of the head.
The ideal method of treating vertigo is to eliminate the cause, which triggered the pathological condition. However, this requires a large number of studies and samples, which do not always help to establish the exact cause. Therefore, doctors are forced to resort to general measures, regardless of the cause. They are engaged in the elimination of the pathological symptom, the improvement of blood circulation in the brain, the removal of emotional stress and nausea.
The patient will be useful to perform special exercises to maintain balance, coordination and the development of force. They can be performed continuously, and not only in painful moments.
Surgical intervention can be prescribed for peripheral vertigo, when it is necessary to cure the pathology of the inner ear:
- Labyrinth Surgery
- Surgery on the auditory and vestibular nerve.
- Drainage endolinf.
It is also recommended to follow a certain diet, which helps to remove excess fluid from the body:
- Exclude chocolate, alcohol, coffee, tobacco, tea.
- Drink liquid up to 1.5 liters per day.
- Limit the intake of salt and salted foods to 2 grams per day.
Dizziness can be a single phenomenon, which usually itself goes away if a person quickly eliminates the cause of its occurrence (resting, eating, etc.). However, pathological processes in the brain or the inner ear must be removed by medication, which improves the prognosis of recovery. Patients need to constantly follow a diet and exercise to maintain balance when identifying constantly emerging vertigo.
What it is
Dizziness of non-systemic nature is caused by physiological or psycho-emotional reasons. He is otherwise called the bibliographic vertigo. In the inner ear of a person there is a special organ of balance - the vestibular apparatus. He is responsible for the stability of the body. If the vertigo is non-systemic in nature, then it has nothing to do with the pathologies of the inner ear. The vestibular system remains normal. However, people often experience a feeling of dizziness.
Vertigo itself is not considered a disease. It can only be a symptom of various pathologies or a sign of the impact on the body of various adverse factors.
Difference from the systemic form of vertigo
What is the difference between non-systemic vertigo and systemic vertigo? If vertigo is systemic, it is associated with various lesions of the vestibular analyzer. With non-systemic vertigo, the diagnosis does not reveal any abnormalities of the organ of equilibrium.
Different types of dizziness differ in manifestations. In systemic form, a person complains of the following symptoms:
- There is a false sense of rotation of the surrounding objects.
- There is a sense of circular movement of his own body.
Such manifestations are observed in Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis and other lesions of the inner ear.
Головокружение несистемного характера никогда не сопровождается ощущением вращения и движения. По этой причине его называют ложным вертиго. However, the attack of such a state is rather difficult. Patients complain of the following manifestations:
- There is a weakness and nausea, as before fainting.
- There is a feeling of instability and loss of balance.
- The patient is anxious and fearful of falling.
- A person gets dark in the eyes.
- Sometimes there is a feeling of veil before the eyes and a feeling of intoxication.
In medical practice, non-systemic types of vertigo are diagnosed much more often than equilibrium organ pathologies.
Types of bibliotic vertigo
Symptoms and treatment of non-systemic vertigo depend on its form. There are several types of bibliopular vertigo:
- Swoon. At the same time, a state close to the pre-frowning comes, a person is afraid of losing consciousness. A variety of reasons can lead to lipotherapy, which we will look at next.
- Psychogenic form. Appears on the background of psycho-emotional experiences.
- Mixed form. In this case, vertigo is one of the symptoms of pathology of the spine and central nervous system.
The causes of non-systemic vertigo will depend on the type of imbalance.
The most common case of vertigo is lipotimy (pre-unconscious condition). It can have both physiological and pathological causes. This condition may occur under the influence of the following factors:
- Orthostatic collapse. In this state, a person experiences a loss of balance when the body position changes. This is due to a temporary fall in blood pressure. This symptom is often noted in older people. Orthostatic collapse is also a side effect of many drugs.
- Pregnancy. Usually dizziness appears in the first three months. It is associated with hormonal changes in the body.
- Vascular diseases of the brain. Diseases such as atherosclerosis are accompanied by disorders of the cerebral circulation. As a result, the nutrition of the brain is sharply disturbed and imbalances occur.
- Anemia With a low content of hemoglobin and red blood cells in the blood is also disrupted oxygen delivery to the brain.
- Diabetes mellitus. Due to improper administration of insulin in diabetics, hypoglycemia may occur - a drop in glucose level. This condition is accompanied by a serious deterioration of health and dizziness.
- Menopause. During menopause, women’s well-being often deteriorates due to hormonal changes. In some patients, there are imbalances with a feeling of nausea.
- Intoxication. Unsystematic dizziness in case of poisoning with poisons is quite common. It occurs when intoxication with various chemicals, stale food and alcohol. Vertigo is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The same etiology has and dizziness with infectious diseases. It is caused by poisoning the body with bacterial and viral toxins.
Another common form of vertigo is associated with psycho-emotional factors. The following circumstances can provoke an attack of vertigo:
- alarm conditions
- neurocirculatory dystonia, accompanied by panic attacks.
In such cases, it is sometimes very difficult to identify the etiology of non-systemic vertigo. After all, the survey does not reveal any organic pathologies in the patient.
There is also vertigo with mixed symptoms. It is often observed in patients with osteochondrosis and other degenerative diseases of the spine. Dizziness is accompanied by a variety of painful manifestations. Especially often this vertigo is observed in the pathology of the cervical region.
Another reason for this type of dizziness is Arnold-Chiari syndrome - congenital cerebellar pathology. This body is responsible for the coordination of movements and balance. Because of the abnormal development of the bones of the skull, the cerebellum is squeezed. As a result, the patient develops persistent vertigo.
Lipotimia is often accompanied by a fall in blood pressure. When this happens, the patient has the following symptoms of non-systemic vertigo:
- severe weakness
- darkening of the eyes
- feeling of approaching loss of consciousness,
- blanching of the skin
- noise in ears,
- impaired lateral vision
- loss of balance.
If the attack is associated with orthostatic collapse, then the patient's condition quickly normalizes. However, if dizziness is caused by pathological causes, then such states can occur for a long time.
Vertigo psychogenic nature
Patients often have vertigo attacks every day. Non-systemic vertigo can disturb a person for many months and even years. At the same time, a neurological examination does not reveal any neurological or vascular pathology in a patient. In these cases, an imbalance usually has a psychogenic etiology.
Vertigo attack proceeds as a panic attack. It is accompanied by the following manifestations:
- a feeling of intense anxiety and fear
- unpleasant sensations in the heart,
- difficulty breathing
- loss of stability
- shortness of breath.
In patients with neurocirculatory dystonia, such attacks may not occur all the time, but only under certain circumstances, for example, with strong agitation or fear. In people suffering from various phobias, psychogenic vertigo may appear when they are at altitude or in open space.
Dizziness with mixed symptoms
In osteochondrosis, dizziness is usually combined with pain in the neck and head. The patient’s gait becomes uncertain and unstable. Usually vertigo occurs only during movement and disappears in a state of rest.
With Arnold-Chiari syndrome, vertigo is accompanied by pain in the back of the head, blurred vision, loss of coordination, and tinnitus.
How dangerous is it
Is unsystematic dizziness dangerous? In some cases, this symptom can signal a serious body trouble. As already mentioned, vertigo may indicate problems with the spine, central nervous system and vessels. And such pathologies require immediate and timely treatment. Therefore, the imbalance in no case can not be ignored. Vertigo should be a serious reason to go to a doctor.
If we consider dizziness as a separate phenomenon, it often leads to falls. There is always a risk of injury.
In addition, the feeling of instability adversely affects the patient’s mental state and quality of life. Many people with balance disorders experience anxiety and are often afraid to leave the house for a walk.
How to identify non-systemic vertigo? First of all, it is necessary to separate this pathology from the vestibular form of vertigo. It is necessary to tell the neuropathologist about his feelings during an attack of vertigo in detail. It is important for a specialist to know: is the vertigo accompanied by a sense of rotation of the surrounding objects and one’s own body? It is this symptom that makes it possible to differentiate vestibular pathology from benzhebybular.
However, the patient is not always able to adequately assess their feelings during an attack. Indeed, at this moment he feels a sense of fear and anxiety. Therefore, in neurology, there are special techniques that allow you to determine the nature of dizziness. The doctor may suggest the patient to pass the following tests:
- Nasal test. The patient is asked to close his eyes, stretch his arms and touch the tip of the nose with his index finger. With vertigo, the patient loses balance during the test.
- Sample Dix-Hallpayka. The patient is sitting on a chair, straightening his back. The doctor turns the patient's head and then suggests that he quickly lie down. If dizziness and trembling of the sclera appear in this case, then such a sign indicates vestibular disorders.
In addition, an x-ray of the spine, dopplerography of cerebral and cervical vessels, MRI and CT of the brain, electroencephalogram are prescribed. It helps to identify neurological pathology.
The choice of treatment for non-systemic vertigo depends on the etiology of this symptom. If vertigo is caused by pathologies of the brain, cerebral vessels or spine, then the main disease should be treated.
In order to stop the attacks of vertigo, doctors also carry out symptomatic treatment. The following groups of drugs are prescribed:
- Nootropic drugs: Piracetam, Zinnarizin, Fezam, Cavinton, Phenibut. These drugs improve cerebral circulation and brain nutrition.
- Sedatives and antidepressants: "Seduxen", "Phenazepam", "Amitriptyline". Such drugs are useful for dizziness caused by anxiety and stress.
- Antihistamine medicines: "Pipolfen", "Dramina", "Dimedrol". They reduce nausea and have soothing properties.
- Antiemetics: Ondansetron, Motilak. They relieve nausea and vomiting during an attack.
Usually amenable to symptomatic treatment of vertigo psychogenic origin. In other cases, it is possible to completely get rid of dizziness only after eliminating its cause.
Set of exercises
As already mentioned, this type of vertigo is not associated with the pathologies of the organ of balance. However, doctors recommend performing exercises for training the vestibular analyzer. This will help reduce the unpleasant manifestations of vertigo.
It is useful to regularly perform the following exercises:
- turns the head and torso,
- turns around him
- swing on a swing,
- breathing exercises.
It is important to remember that before conducting vestibular gymnastics should consult with your doctor. Elderly patients with vascular diseases exercises can be performed only sparingly. The intensity of training should be increased gradually, listening to your well-being.
Can I get rid of dizziness with home remedies? Rely on traditional medicine in this case is impossible. However, homemade recipes can complement drug therapy:
- Tea with melissa. It is necessary to take a tablespoon of chopped herbs and place it in a glass with boiling water. Then drink insist 15-20 minutes. It helps to improve blood circulation in the brain and reduce headache. With the onset of dizziness, you should slowly drink a glass of such tea.
- Massage with oils. It is necessary to take camphor (100 ml), fir (30 ml) and juniper oil (10 ml) and mix well. This mixture is applied to the head area and ground.
- Drink from honey and apple vinegar. In a glass of boiling water dissolve 2 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and 1 teaspoon of honey. This tool should be drunk in the morning or before meals. It not only helps with dizziness, but also reduces cholesterol.
Such agents are especially useful in the psychogenic form of vertigo. They help calm the nervous system and eliminate anxiety.
How to prevent bouts of vertigo? Neurologists advise you to follow the following guidelines:
- Periodically perform gymnastics for balance training.
- Avoid exposure to toxins and alcohol.
- In time to cure vascular and neurological pathologies.
- With emotional lability, take sedatives and visit a psychotherapist.
- Regularly undergo preventive examinations with a neurologist.
Compliance with these measures will help to avoid diseases, accompanied by such an unpleasant phenomenon as dizziness.
General concept of vertigo
The cause of dizziness may lie in the depths of the human head. It is there, in the region of the inner ear, that the vestibular apparatus is located, which is responsible for man’s sense of balance in space. When any violation in the vestibular apparatus, there are irregularities in the transmission of nerve signals, the brain incorrectly receives and processes information, and, consequently, a person experiences a discomfortable feeling of loss of balance caused by instability in body position relative to surrounding objects.
In case of pathology of the vestibular apparatus, doctors speak of vertigo — true vertigo, when a person complains about the sense of rotation of surrounding objects around him, or the patient experiences a feeling of internal rotation. In addition, the patient experiences the characteristic symptoms of malaise:
- his actions and steps in space become uncoordinated,
- nausea may occasionally occur, vomiting is not always present,
- throws a man into a cold sweat, it seems to him that the floor is slipping from under his feet.
Very often, doctors listen to the complaint of patients that with a sharp change in body position, there is a darkening in the eyes, dizziness. Why is dizzy when getting out of bed fast? In this case we are talking about orthostatic collapse.
There can be many types of dizziness, it all depends on the reasons causing them. The classification is as follows:
- In diseases of the brain may experience dizziness, called central. Their appearance can be caused by traumatic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage or the development of a tumor in any part of the brain.
- Peripheral type of dizziness is associated with disturbances in the work of the inner ear, as well as the vestibular nerve.
- If dizziness is caused by a malfunction in any of the systems (muscular, visual, vestibular), then a diagnosis is made - systemic vertigo. It will take a lot of additional research to clarify what exactly the changes in the head are, what are the true causes of dizziness, and what treatment will be needed.
- Physiological dizziness is not associated with systemic disorders. It can cause neurogenic causes. For example, mental fatigue, stressful situation, depression - the main causes of dizziness in women. Sometimes the head is spinning due to the lack of glucose in the body. This reason is also present in women, because they love to sit on different diets, and the body suffers from a lack of vitamins and nutrients.
What is not considered a pathology
When dizzy, a person feels a sense of fear for themselves and their health. This is quite natural, but does every kind of dizziness require examination and treatment? It turns out that some types of vertigo are not pathological, so they do not need to be treated:
- Many people after a long trip to transport (for example, by train or ship) experience a loss of balance. The earth seems to be slipping from under their feet, the objects around them lose their clear boundaries, begin to blur in front of their eyes. A person experiences instability when walking.
- Riding attractions for many people causes an euphoria attack, but for some such entertainment does not end very well: there is weakness and dizziness.
- Sometimes when people climb to a higher altitude, they have a feeling of loss of balance. This is a normal reaction of the body when the eyes have not had time to focus on objects nearby after looking away.
- Strong stress, caused by either positive or negative events, leads to spasm of brain vessels. Blood flow decreases sharply, there is a short-term hypoxia, which makes it possible the appearance of dizziness.
Causes of the pathological condition
If you feel dizzy once, this is not a reason for panic, but the constant dizziness requires treatment in the clinic, because the reasons can be quite serious, consider the main ones:
- viral infections can cause shaky gait, a sense of rotation of objects around,
- a migraine attack is accompanied by a violation of blood circulation in the brain, which is the cause of the dizziness,
- CNS diseases, depressive states, fear, emotional outbursts, epileptic seizures,
- brain injury,
- poisoning with food, alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs,
- dizziness and weakness are caused by antibiotics, as well as drugs used in the treatment of hypertension,
- changes in hormonal levels (pregnancy, menstruation, menopause) - these are the main causes of dizziness in women,
- tumor neoplasms in the brain,
- prolonged abstinence from food, wrong diet,
- vascular dystonia,
- the work associated with a long stay in one position (behind a computer monitor, driving a car), leads to stagnation and circulatory disorders,
- pre-stroke and stroke can cause dizziness, loss of coordination, changes in speech, which requires timely diagnosis and proper treatment,
- dizzy head can become dizzy, with this disease a person complains of hearing loss, there is extraneous noise in your ears, ringing,
- Meniere's disease is also accompanied by tinnitus, with dizziness,
- external factors can also become provocateurs of vertigo. For example, during sunstroke a person experiences a deterioration in health, there is an unpleasant feeling of loss of balance, objects
start to blur before my eyes,
- disease of the cervical spine - the reason for which the head can spin,
- an attack of vertigo is caused by vestibular neuritis. A person complains of increased symptoms when turning the neck and head.
How to pass the diagnosis
What if my head is spinning quite often? It interferes with the normal existence, work, makes visit the doctor. Because of what may be dizziness, the specialist must find out. Initially, you can contact a therapist or a neurologist, and they will send an otolaryngologist, a traumatologist and other specialists for further examination.
When visiting a neurologist, a person will need to undergo certain test tests. They are aimed at identifying problems of the vestibular apparatus.
In order to properly diagnose, the following diagnostic measures may be required:
- When the patient complains of hearing loss, an audiometric test is performed. The patient is left in a special chamber, wearing headphones on him, by means of which sounds of different frequencies are reproduced. The patient must press the button at the moment when he heard any reproduced sound.
- Electronistagmography (ENG) and video examination (VNG) allow you to monitor the involuntary movements of the eyeballs. For this purpose, special electrodes or a device in the form of glasses fitted with motion sensors are attached to the temporal zone of the patient's head.
- To test the vestibular apparatus prescribed provocative tests. To do this, you need to tilt the patient's head to the side, and then throw it back so that the patient's head lies on the patient's couch 30 degrees down.
- An MRI and CT scan will reveal problems of cerebral circulation.
- Blood flow velocity is determined during Doppler studies.
- An x-ray of the cervical spine may be prescribed.
A strong attack of dizziness is no reason to panic. Fear and panic behavior only worsen the condition, so you should calm down and it is advisable to sit down in order not to fall by chance.
What to do with dizziness? Sitting down, you must try to stop the look on a fixed object. Some try to close their eyes, but usually the dizziness from this only increases. If an attempt to focus the eyes did not lead to the relief of the condition, additional unpleasant symptoms appeared:
- numbness of the limbs
- speech disturbance
- pain in the heart, abdomen,
- you should call the ambulance team as soon as possible and take a horizontal position. It is advisable not to make any sudden movements, if possible, not to move his head.
If there are people near the patient, they can alleviate his condition a little. The patient must unbutton tight clothing and provide oxygen. It is necessary to lay the victim so that the upper part of the body is on a slight elevation (on the pillow). You can put a cool compress on your head, drugs like: seduxen, andaksin, atropine.
In the systemic form of the disease, the following groups of drugs can be used:
- sedatives help strengthen the nervous system and relieve anxiety. Various medications can be used, but diazepam is prescribed more often than others.
- as antihistamine drugs prescribed diphenhydramine, pipolfen,
- sedatives are used in therapy, for example, seduxen,
- if the seizures are accompanied by emetic urges, antiemetic pills are used: cercuated, metoclopramide.
- cardiovascular drugs are prescribed for vascular diseases.
In the hospital with prolonged seizures, dehydration therapy (eufillin, mannitol, diazepam) can be prescribed.
Traditional methods of therapy
Popular recommendations do not replace the main treatment, but help to improve the patient's condition. Folk remedies have a minimum of side effects, so they can even be used to treat severely weakened patients, old people, children, pregnant women. Before using this or that tool, you should consult a doctor.
What to do if periodically dizzy? This is what traditional medicine recommends for vertigo:
- In the morning, before breakfast you should take fresh vegetable juices. Most suitable juice carrots, beets, pumpkins.
- Grape juice or pomegranate can help improve blood quality. You can use pomegranate daily, it increases hemoglobin and improves blood circulation.
- Very useful for frequent dizziness seaweed salad. It contains useful trace elements that improve the functioning of the vestibular apparatus.
- As a prophylactic agent that improves blood circulation, it is recommended to drink tea with the addition of pieces of ginger root.
- Signs of vertigo will help remove herbal collection (linden, lemon balm, mint). Enough tablespoon of collecting a glass of boiling water. It is recommended to drink some time after lunch and always before bedtime. Instead of this collection you can use clover decoction.
- Fresh parsley and infusion of its seeds can saturate the body with useful substances and reduce the unpleasant symptoms of dizziness.
Can a healthy person dizzy sometimes? If this happens rarely and is caused by travel, fatigue, then it is permissible. To improve well-being and promote health, you must adhere to the following tips:
- give up bad habits (drugs, alcohol, cigarettes),
- reduce the consumption of coffee and caffeinated beverages,
- during work, you must take breaks and accompany them gymnastics,
- reduce consumption of canned products
- gradually transfer the body to under-salted food,
- to adjust the mode of work and rest.
Dizziness is considered a feeling of spontaneous body movement in space or movement of objects relative to it.
The feeling of giddiness is associated with seeming instability, loss of balance, and in some cases it sometimes seems that the surface underfoot leaves.
Dizziness is usually a harmless sensation and is observed in almost everyone, but when it is noted constantly, in particular if it is intense, it is imperative to contact a specialist, as this indicates the presence of any diseases.
Often, dizziness occurs during a sudden change in body position, head trauma, effects on the body of toxic (alcohol, tobacco, drugs) substances, stress, etc.
Treatment of vertigo is complex and involves the establishment of a provoking factor for the disease.
Sometimes this problem can occur unexpectedly due to natural factors, for example, long rides on rides, fear of heights.
In this situation, it is called vertigo, the feeling of the rotation of the surrounding objects. Psychogenic vertigo has the same nature.
Often this condition occurs during hereditary hypertension.
Symptoms of vertigo such:
- feeling of rotation, in particular during lifting or turning the head,
- double vision,
- loss of balance
- general malaise,
- nausea, gag reflex,
- feeling of heaviness in the head,
- blurred eyes
- temperature rise,
- tinnitus, impaired hearing.
In addition, during certain diseases, dizziness is associated with:
- unpleasant sensations, discomfort and stiffness of movements in the neck (during osteochondrosis),
- speech disorders, muscular susceptibility and loss of balance (during a stroke),
- intense dizziness in some positions of the body with discomfort in the head with deafness on one side (during tumors in the brain),
- severe dizziness, which are associated with nausea, depressive state, and changeable mood, including unconsciousness (during menstruation, during menopause, pregnancy at 1–3 months).
Before you treat dizziness, you need to find out its causes.
This pathology may indicate inconsistent information that enters the central brain from the 3 physiological systems responsible for coordination.
Because of this, there are a lot of provoking factors of vertigo. The main ones are:
- alcohol consumption, smoking, taking drugs,
- heavy food intoxication,
- use of certain medications, in particular antibiotic or other drugs for hypertension,
- motion sickness
- menstrual cycle, menopause,
- diet food, fasting,
- head injury or spinal injury
- infectious diseases,
- epileptic seizures,
- Meniere's disease
- psycho-emotional disorders, stressful situations, anxiety, depressive states and other neurological failures,
- brain neoplasm
- VSD or neurocirculatory dystonia,
- the impact on the body of negative external factors: an increase or decrease in temperature, high humidity.
In addition, common causes of pathology include:
- Work in a sitting position. In particular, when the seat is rather uncomfortable, a substantial load is placed on the vertebral and neck, as a result of which blood flow to the brain is impaired. If the person gets up, dizziness will appear slightly.
- Stroke. Dizziness during a similar phenomenon is associated with speech disorders, loss of coordination, nausea, in some cases, a gag reflex, lethargy in the limbs, and probably an unconscious state.
- Otitis. During this disease, dizziness is associated with impaired hearing, noise, or ringing in the ears.
- Vestibular neuritis. In this situation, there is an increase in dizziness in the process of rising and head movements. The disease appears unexpectedly, after 2-3 days the patient feels better. However, a certain period of time remains the feeling of rotation after acceleration.
- Osteochondrosis in the cervical region. Dizziness becomes stronger in the process of motor activity of the head, in particular, the intensity increases during sudden turns and ups. Patients in some situations, there is a stitching gait and a violation of spatial orientation. This may be associated with pain and stiffness in the motor activity of the neck.
- Perilymphatic fistula. Distinctive signs of dizziness, ringing in the ears and severe deafness on one side. In addition, patients complain of nausea and gag reflex.
- Transient failure of blood flow in the brain,
- Agoraphobia. Dizziness occurs due to fear of open space, in particular a large number of people. At this time, the patient's head is spinning only from one mention that it is necessary to leave the house.
Therapy for dizziness should be agreed with the doctor. Only by observing the medical prescriptions it is possible to achieve the proper result and eliminate the unpleasant pathological process.
To treat dizziness during low blood pressure, it is necessary to increase blood pressure and strengthen the body.
To this end, it is tedious to eliminate stress, go in for sports, be on the street, and engage in hardening. An important role is played by a balanced diet and proper sleep.
During increased blood pressure dizziness does not appear in all cases - often these symptoms are characteristic for stage 2 and 3 of the disease.
To eliminate these symptoms, pressure control is required. In addition, it is extremely important to eliminate psycho-emotional upheavals, more often to be in the fresh air, to reduce salt intake.
During positional vertigo
To treat such a condition, it is required to combine the use of drugs with a special gymnastics.
It is recommended to carry out rotator head tilts, which help to eliminate difficulties during motor activity. Already after a couple of days there is a positive effect from this treatment.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a fairly popular pathological process. It is characterized by abrupt attacks of vertigo, lasting less than a minute.
This type of vertigo is manifested in the situation when the patient has changed the location of the head.
During psychogenic vertigo
Psychotropic treatment is used to treat this pathology. Initially prescribed antidepressants. In some cases, used "light" antipsychotics.
The auxiliary drug is betahistine. It helps to reduce the excitability of the vestibular apparatus.
Non-medicinal methods of treatment include:
- vestibular gymnastics,
- breathing exercises
- psychological help.
During vestibular vertigo
In the process of formation of such a state, symptomatic treatment is prescribed, which is aimed at eliminating intense dizziness.
Then the focus moves to the rehabilitation period of the patient and the restoration of proper functioning.
To stop an acute attack, the patient must be restrained. As a drug treatment, anti-vomiting and vestibular suppressors are used.
The latter include antihistamines, anticholinergics and benzodiazepines.
What is dizziness?
This unpleasant painful syndrome is characterized by a sense of false instability, the appearance of a feeling of one’s own movement, the circling of nearby objects. For dizziness, which is not a pathology, an example is the situation with unexpected inhibition of the carousel. A person prone to dizziness, continues to feel like rolling around on it and sees the movement of surrounding things.
It is worth paying attention that dizziness when rising, movement, which is accompanied by deterioration of health and weakness, can not occur without a reason. If similar symptoms began to bother you, then by all means consult a therapist. At the doctor's office, accurately describe your health and various signs besides dizziness, because your future treatment and recovery depends on the accuracy of the symptoms.
For a healthy person, the state of natural position in space and coordination of movements gives a sense of balance, where he perceives things around him with adequacy, timely influencing the changes that occur. This is all due to signals that come from proprioceptive sensations, as well as visual and vestibular sensory systems in the cerebral cortex.
The muscles of the eyes and skeletal muscle tissue receive signals that are sent from the brain. Thus, the stability of the body posture and the position of the eye muscles for the good functioning of the human body depend on these impulses. But if signals from the vestibular regions do not enter the cortex of the brain, weakness and dizziness arise, as well as the false feeling that surrounding objects are moving.
It is important to know! Often patients may confuse dizziness with motion sickness, imbalance, and unstable body. But such symptoms can not be called dizziness, it is more inherent symptoms of abnormalities in the nervous system.
Factors that cause dizziness
- The inflammatory process in the inner ear. The presence of inflammation in the ear produces secretion, decreased hearing, dizziness and nausea. You can escape from dizziness, if you eliminate the focus of inflammation.
- The brain is impaired. Severe dizziness is caused by brain dysfunction as a result of cranial or vertebral injuries, cerebellar abnormalities, and tumors. In many cases, symptoms of cerebellar infarction may occur.
- Migraine. If you have a negative reaction to noises and bright light, you are worried about severe headaches, nausea and dizziness, then these symptoms are clearly caused by migraines. It is accompanied by an imbalance, severe occipital pain, and vomiting. The most common cause of the origin of dizziness is often a migraine. It is inextricably linked with unpleasant headache and impaired hemodynamics of the brain, which leads to a failure of the function of the vestibular apparatus.
- Severe dizziness in some cases may occur due to exposure otolithsthat excite the nerve endings of the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear of a person. May suddenly occur in humans by the age of 50. The patient feels dizzy when turning the head, as well as after an infectious disease or a head injury.
- Dizziness due to unstable emotional background. When a person gets into a stressful situation, has endured strong experiences, or feels unwell and very tired, dizziness may occur. It can be accompanied by a depressed depression, anxiety or weakness, as well as fog in the head.
- Vestibular neuritis is also a provoking factor in the appearance of vertigo. The process of inflammation takes place in the vestibular nerve, moving from the inner ear to the brain. The main symptom is dizziness at normal pressure.Since the main cause is viral infections, the patient's condition is accompanied by painful symptoms - nausea, weakness, cough, runny nose, fever. Also, the patient suffers from psycho-vegetative disorders - sweating, anxiety syndrome, pallor.
- Meniere's disease is the most unusual factor initiating vertigo. This disease is characterized by regular or intermittent seizures of deafness and dizziness, which can lead to a complete loss of auditory function. A strong attack is accompanied by pressure and noise inside the ear, vegetative disturbances, nausea, panic, lasting several hours or even days. The disease can be caused by viral infections, head trauma, or an allergic reaction.
- Menses. Women often complain of dizziness during menstruation, the appearance of which is to blame for low blood pressure and low hemoglobin.
- Dizziness during pregnancy supplemented by a sense of weakness, a sense of instability and nearness of fainting. Caused by the weakening of the body of the future mother, low pressure and a decrease in blood glucose levels. Therefore, expectant mothers need to control blood pressure fluctuations, follow the recommendations of the doctor. A good effect brings a glass of warm water with 2 tbsp. Dissolved. l sugar drunk in the morning.
If the head begins to spin against the background of depression, hypochondria, mental decline, then the cause should be sought in the psychiatric or neurological side of the disease.
Regular and recurring dizziness has happened to most people, according to statistics. But most of those suffering from this disease do not want to seek help from doctors, believing that they will not help. But medical workers are well aware that there is a cure for dizziness, only it is individual for each person and is prescribed only after clarifying its symptoms.
In medical practice, there are drugs that help cure dizziness. Doctors may prescribe medications that affect your vestibular medication or dizziness tablets that improve hemodynamics — Sermion, Memoplant, Cavinton. In Meniere's syndrome, Betahistine is prescribed, in addition vitamins of group B are prescribed.
Treatment can also be carried out using techniques such as:
- manual therapy
- vacuum therapy (canned massage),
- acupuncture reflexology,
- Spa treatment.
With vertigo you can cope without resorting to medical treatment. It is necessary to resort to an extensive number of recipes of traditional medicine, a set of exercises, a set of methods aimed at eliminating this ailment. But nevertheless, for a speedy recovery, the method of treatment is desirable to be coordinated with your doctor.
General recommendations how to get rid of dizziness
1. Use folk remedies for dizziness. By combining medication treatment with traditional medicine recipes, you can achieve the maximum effect in the fight against vertigo.
- Recipe number 1. Mix 1 part of beet juice, 2 parts of pomegranate juice and 3 parts of carrot juice. Drink before meals.
- Recipe number 2. Grind dried kelp into powder. Before meals, take 1 tsp. seaweed powder, washed down with water.
2. Perform charging. To alleviate the unpleasant condition of the patient and to avoid dizziness, the systematic implementation of the following exercises is recommended:
- Stand straight, head straight. Turn right on the heel of the right foot, go back to the standing position, so, 10 times. Do similar exercises to the left.
- Sit on the couch, turn your head to the left by 45 °, move to the right side, keep your head in the original position for a few seconds. Do the same with the opposite side, repeating every day several times.
- Sitting on the floor with legs extended, lie down quickly on your back, move to the right side with the same speed. Roll over to the left side, then back to your back and return to the starting position while sitting. In this exercise, it is important to perform all movements quickly to achieve a good effect from the exercise.
Such an unpleasant condition, like dizziness, is characterized by patients as a feeling of leaving the ground from under their feet, loss of balance. Almost every person had a feeling of instability, a sense of rotation of objects. These symptoms are caused by various diseases, pathologies or a natural reaction, for example, when rocking in a car, in urban ground transportation.
If dizziness is caused by riding on a swing, then this is a natural reaction. Painful state of health will pass on its own through time, peace is desirable. But if the unpleasant state is provoked by a pathological manifestation or a disease, then immediately contact a doctor asking the question: “What should I do if I feel dizzy?”.
Vertigo and vertigo: how to help yourself
Vertigo is a condition in which a person has a feeling that everything is spinning around him. (objective vertigo), or he is spinning (subjective vertigo) As a rule, vertigo is accompanied by falls or loss of balance.
Vertigo is associated with the involvement of the vestibular system and can be:
central (involvement of the vestibular nuclei in the brain stem, cerebellar cortex) or
peripheral (with the participation of the labyrinth of the vestibular apparatus or the vestibular nerve).
Suddenly it turns out that in some everyday situations (driving more often) the balance is lost. This may be due to a violation of the semicircular canals of the inner ear, the nerve pathways that originate in them or from the eyes.Stomach upset, ear infections or migraines can also cause dizziness.
But when vertigo - usually occurs when driving - dizziness becomes more intense and chronic, accompanied by other symptoms.
The causes that can cause vertigo are numerous: otitis, vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis (sudden dizziness with vomiting and instability), Meniere's syndrome (with sudden dizziness, the patient may even fall to the ground), vascular disorders (periodic ischemia), neurological, eye, medications (streptomycin), hysteria, alcohol, tumors, etc. Attacks of vertigo are accompanied by severe vomiting, tinnitus, nystagmus (involuntary frequent eye movements) and instability.
Vertigo is often caused by inflammation of the organ of balance in the inner ear.but it can also be a consequence of frequent motion sickness and Meniere's disease, in which the attacks of vertigo are accompanied by tinnitus and partial deafness.
In rare cases, vertigo is caused by a benign tumor of the auditory nerve., and older people are a consequence of stroke. Vertigo also may be a symptom of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and ear disease.
Another possible cause of vertigo is the presence of changes in the central nervous system. Serious diseases, such as brain tumors, or more benign ones, such as low blood sugar concentrations that do not provide enough energy for the brain, can cause dizziness.
Symptoms of peripheral vertigo improve when closing the eyes. Dizziness may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sweating, pallor, hypotension, tinnitus with reduced transient and one-sided hearing loss, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) horizontally and gait disturbance, fear of falling from a height.
Depending on the symptoms, an experienced therapist will be able to determine if the problem is in sensory stimuli or at the level of motion control. (loss of nervous or muscle control by the body), inconsistency.
Dizziness and vertigo may be the first symptoms of atherosclerosisa, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to certain areas of the brain. Medications and some specific food allergens can also affect the brain's perception of sensory stimuli or movement control.. Except when the cause is obvious, these symptoms should be evaluated by a doctor.
Eastern philosophy believes that vertigo is a “being on earth” deficit or excess space / air. Thus, the treatment is to concentrate attention or place the body on the ground, for which, according to Chinese medicine, it is beneficial to nourish or act on the meridian of the stomach.
If you have dizziness or persistent vertigo, consult your doctor. Your doctor will measure your blood pressure, examine your ears to determine the cause of the disease, order a blood sugar and urine test, and if they are normal, you may be offered other tests.
If a tumor of the auditory nerve is suspected, then you will probably be assigned a computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain to confirm or rule out a more serious condition. Treatment will depend on the results of research and diagnosis.
Doctors prescribe various drugs to alleviate dizziness, but if it is Meniere's syndrome, then, as a rule, surgical intervention is necessary.
In acute dizziness, you should drink a small glass of fruit juice, water with unrefined carbohydrates, such as a slice of bread (thus increasing blood sugar levels).
Avoid alcohol, caffeine and refined sugar.
If hypoglycemia or arteriosclerosis is the cause, these problems should be addressed.
Rest in bed
Avoid sudden movements.
It is advisable to lie in a dark or dimly lit room, cover with the head and eyes closed.
Sodium sulfate (salt number 10): dizziness caused by a stomach ulcer or biliary tract disease, neuralgia and headache with nausea after eating.
Potassium phosphate (salt number 5): dizziness in combination with general nervous condition, aggravated in a standing or lying position, dizziness as a result of cerebral anemia and fatigue
The following homeopathic remedies may be helpful if taken every 15 minutes until the symptoms go off spontaneously or before consulting a doctor.
Potassium carbonate, if symptoms worsen with movement or improve with open windows.
Hemlock spotted if symptoms worsen in prone position.
Gelzemium, if dizziness is accompanied by weakness and a feeling of instability.
Adam root (white cross), if when dizziness when we stand up.
Cocculus - when traveling in the car
Gagging nut if dizziness happens often after eating
Tobakum with seasickness, in a car or plane.
In some cases, beneficial changes in diet: cut caffeine, candy, fried foods and salt.
Causes of dizziness during menstruation
Vertigo usually occurs in connection with dysfunction of the vestibular apparatus, due to disorders of the central nervous system, but in women it happens not only because of disturbances in the mechanisms of transmission of sensory signals to the brain.
Causes of dizziness:
- side effect of drugs
- hormonal changes when a new menstrual cycle begins,
- lowering blood pressure
- insufficient blood glucose,
Dizziness during menstruation develops due to a deficiency of beneficial substances in the body. The causes of the condition are most often in the fact that a woman is on a rigid diet or consumes few carbohydrates, vitamins and microelements, as a result of which a breakdown occurs.
If dizziness lasts a long time or is accompanied by pain, nausea, pressure surges and other symptoms, it is necessary to be examined by a neurologist, ENT, cardiologist, therapist, vestibulologist.
Types of dizziness during menstruation
Vertigo can have a systemic and non-systemic nature. The first type of dizziness appears periodically, for example, before the start of a cycle, after menstruation or during ovulation, but then it stops independently until the next time. Why dizzy with systemic vertigo? The reasons are associated with hormonal failure, imbalance of progesterone and estrogen, atmospheric pressure drops.
Non-systemic vertigo arises due to disturbances in metabolic processes, for example, with water-salt imbalance, glucose deficiency, vitamin deficiency, after exhausting physical exertion. During the period of treatment, correction of the diet, duration of work and rest, compliance with the drinking regimen is required.
Vertigo has two subspecies, which differ in symptoms, and arise for different reasons. Physiological (menstruation) and pathological (vestibular neuritis, hypotension, otitis media, osteochondrosis and other diseases not related to gynecology) of vertigo are distinguished.
Types of vertigo with monthly:
The first type occurs when tissue and blood vessels are damaged in the brain. These are injuries, stroke, swelling, diabetes. During menstruation, dizziness also appears due to PMS. At the same time, there may be vascular spasms, insufficient oxygen enters the brain, tissue edema, nausea, and intracranial or arterial pressure drop occur.
The peripheral subspecies of vertigo is associated with disruption of the vestibular apparatus or pathology, and not with menstruation. Vertigo in this case may be accompanied by temperature, pain in the area of the tragus, which increases with PMS. An ENT examination is required.
Methods of eliminating dizziness
With vertigo, it is recommended to regularly measure blood pressure. If dizziness began, you should immediately lie down or sit down so that your head and shoulders are on the same level. It improves blood circulation in the brain, and so the tissues get more oxygen. In addition, it is useful to cover your eyes for a few minutes and lean on something or focus your eyes on one subject. You need to measure pressure, pulse and take medicine or call a doctor.
It is advisable to undergo a full examination to determine exactly why dizzy during menstruation.
If no pathological causes have been discovered by doctors, phytopreparations can be used to eliminate vertigo: tincture of motherwort or Eleutherococcus, valerian, Grandaxine, Persen. From folk remedies decoction of clover, lemon balm, St. John's wort, plantain, hawthorn, parsley seeds, nettle leaves are effective. They gently relieve PMS symptoms, smooth out blood pressure, and have a calming effect on the nervous system.
Vitrum +, Multibion, Berrok are prescribed from vitamin complexes for dizziness. They contain tocopherol, pyridoxine, calcium, iron, magnesium, useful for the cardiovascular system.
You need to contact a nutritionist to choose the right diet. During menstruation, it is recommended to drink more liquid, herbal tea, switch to split meals. In order not to overeat, you should not eat food three times a day, but divide the daily rate by 5-6 times. It is useful to drink carrot-beet and pomegranate juices, use enough fresh berries, fruits, vegetables. It is recommended to abandon coffee, alcoholic beverages, limit salted and smoked food.
During critical days, pronounced exercise, training, carrying weights, and so on are contraindicated. For dizziness, point and general massage will be useful. The purpose of physiotherapy is to improve blood circulation in the spinal column and in the brain for a quick supply of tissues with oxygen.
Acupressure can be done independently. It is necessary for 4 minutes to press the pad with your finger, while rotating clockwise at the area between the eyebrows, under the nose, around the ears, at the back of the head, and then rub the lobes.
With dizziness, breathing exercises developed by A. N. Strelnikova effectively help. They are performed in one pace and strict sequence.
If dizzy during menstruation, will help complex breathing exercises. In the sitting position, 4 short noisy inhalations are made with the nose, as if air is filled into the lungs with portions, clenching the palms of the hand into a fist. Then one silent exhalation through weakly closed lips with simultaneous extension of the fingers. Rest for 10 seconds and repeat again. A total of 24 approaches will be required (96 breaths).
The following exercise is done while standing with the cams on the sides. They inhale briefly through the nose 8 times in a row, straining their shoulders and throwing their hands from the waist down. During a silent exhalation, the palms are returned. Just repeat 12 times.
With dizziness, these 2 exercises, in the morning and in the evening, are allowed to be done independently, without the presence of a doctor and at first into an incomplete strength, until the body adapts. In total, the complex has 12 exercises that have contraindications for execution, therefore, therapeutic gymnastics are recommended under the supervision of a physician in order to eliminate adverse outcomes from practice.
In order to prevent dizziness, it is useful to go for a walk in the open air before going to bed, do morning exercises regularly, and take a contrast shower. It is also recommended to air the rooms several times a day and maintain the temperature in the room not higher than 24 C.
Dizziness during menstruation is treated by folk methods in the event that the exact causes of its occurrence are established.All medical and herbal preparations are recommended to be taken after consulting a doctor and in the dosage specified in the prescription. A strong and long-lasting effect from the treatment of vertigo is achieved after complex methods of therapy and with the daily implementation of preventive measures.
Causes of dizziness in women
The condition in which a person experiences the illusion of movement of the body or the objects around it is called dizziness or vertigo. The process is caused by a violation of the transmission of impulses from the brain to the main systems of the body, as well as a disorder in the blood supply to the brain, metabolic disorders, the work of the vestibular apparatus, diseases of internal organs and other pathologies.
Vertigo in medicine is considered to be not a disease, but a symptom. It may disappear after removing the cause of the ailment. Vertigo is always manifested in combination with other signs. Dizziness is divided into:
- Peripheral - due to vegetative disorders. Accompanied by rapid heartbeat, increased sweating. The attack passes quickly, without affecting vestibular functions.
- Central - possible deviations in the brain. The attack comes suddenly, speech, motive functions, sight can be broken.
Under normal pressure
Vertigo in women with normal blood pressure can manifest itself due to many factors. These include:
- cervical osteochondrosis,
- circulatory and circulatory disorders of the brain,
- spinal cord pathologies
- a period of menopause or hormonal adjustment during puberty,
- traumatic brain injury
- menstrual period
- chronic sleep deprivation,
- mental or physical strain.
Causes of dizziness, nausea, weakness
Women may experience an uncomfortable condition that is accompanied by nausea and weakness. It occurs under certain conditions or may be symptoms of diseases. Causes of nausea and dizziness in women:
- intoxication of the body due to alcohol, food, drug poisoning,
- hypertensive attacks,
- infections, brain injuries,
- vestibular neuronitis (manifestation of vertigo due to a sudden change in body position),
- magnetic storms response,
- severe stress
- circulatory disorders in the spinal column,
- hyperventilation syndrome
- preinfarction states (myocardial infarction).
Episodes of vertigo, occurring with a certain frequency, may indicate violations of a physical and psychological nature. The reasons for frequent discomfort are:
- Iron-deficiency anemia,
- increased intraocular pressure
- neurocirculatory dystonia due to frequent stress, emotional instability,
- ear injuries
- initial stage of oncology,
- blood pressure surges,
- unbalanced nutrition
- chronic fatigue.
The occurrence of a strong vertigo indicates a serious disruption in the functioning of the body systems. The reasons for this condition are:
- brain tumor (hearing impaired, blood or pus appearing),
- effects of head injury
- disorders of the vestibular system (motion sickness),
- overdose of drugs (antibiotics),
- auditory nerve tumor
- Meniere's disease (inflammation of the inner ear).
Causes of light vertigo in women are violations of the organs responsible for controlling the body in space. These conditions include:
- fasting diets (due to lack of glucose),
- slight concussion
- autonomic abnormalities
- ear infections (otitis),
- impaired blood supply to the brain,
- vascular dystonia,
- ischemic attacks
- motion sickness in transport, on the carousel.
This condition is caused by an abrupt cessation of blood flow to the brain or peripheral systems. Causes of sudden dizziness in women:
- vestibular neuritis (inflammation of the vestibulocochlear nerve),
- Meniere's disease (pain, noise, ringing in the ears),
- otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear),
- acute labyrinthitis (damage to the nerve receptors in the inner ear, responsible for sound and coordination),
- damage to the eardrum,
- injury to the inside of the ear.
With a lack of coordination
This type of dizziness is characterized by a mandatory change of body position in space. The culprits of this type of vertigo can be:
- cerebellar stroke,
- abnormalities in the structure and work of the spine (Kimmerle and Kiare syndromes)
- diplopia (split of the visible image),
- vestibular neuritis,
- meningitis, encephalitis,
- orthostatic collapse (dizziness during an abrupt change in body position),
- bilateral vestibulopathy (strong fluctuations of objects in space at night when driving),
- disorders of the heart (arrhythmia, defect),
- central vestibular disorders.
After 40 years
At the age of 40-55 years, women experience dizziness due to degenerative processes of the menopausal period. This affects the state of the blood vessels and the entire circulatory system. General weakness and impaired coordination may occur. Vertigo at this age is manifested due to:
- intraocular pressure
- vascular pathologies
- multiple sclerosis
- vestibular neuritis,
- craniovertebral pathology (impaired speech, function of swallowing).
In women after 60 years
In old age there is a change in the composition of the blood, the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques, which leads to impaired blood circulation in the brain and disorders of the motor system. Causes of dizziness in women after 60 years:
- neurogenic disorders (overwork, stress)
- eye diseases (glaucoma, astigmatism),
- Parkinson's disease,
- tumor or degeneration of the structure of the cerebellum,
- preymphatic fistula,
- diseases of the middle and inner ear,
- dyscirculatory encephalopathy (damage to the vessels of the brain),
- heart pathology (stroke, heart attack).
In old age
When treating dizziness in elderly people, medications are prescribed. Often in this situation, drugs are used that contain betahistine dihydrochloride.
The efficacy of therapy depends directly on the correct combination of this drug with other drugs.
Elderly people are prescribed vitamins, antiplatelet agents, agents that stop depression, and drugs that reduce symptoms.
In addition, you need to carry out psychological treatment, healing gymnastics, etc.
Selection of therapy for dizziness in children depends directly on the factors that provoked it.
When such conditions are noted constantly, drugs are prescribed that help strengthen the vegetative system:
- vitamin b6,
- drugs that dilate blood vessels
- drugs that improve blood flow in the brain.
In addition, physiotherapy and healing exercises that promote the training of the vestibular apparatus will be effective.
In such a situation, it is necessary to stop the provoking factors of dizziness, and treatment will depend directly on the diagnosis.
It plays an important role during cerebral stroke, which is a manifestation of the main pathological process - atherosclerosis, hypertension, etc.
Therefore, we can conclude that the treatment of vertigo is aimed at eliminating the pathology and symptoms.
During nausea and dizziness
This symptom is a hallmark of a large number of pathological processes.
In order to diagnose them, you need to turn to specialists - mainly ENT doctors, oculists and neurologists deal with such disorders.
To select the proper treatment, a variety of diagnostic measures are required: an audiogram, CT scan or MRI.
In addition, it is recommended to make an x-ray of the spine and head, to make an ophthalmologic diagnosis and to make an ultrasound-Doppler study of the arteries.
Only after this specialist selects treatment. Usually, dizziness is treated with betahistine, cinnarizine, motilium. In order to eliminate nausea and gag reflex, metoclopramide is prescribed.
During weakness and dizziness
Malaise accompanies virtually all pathological processes, which are characterized by dizziness. Therefore, in order to eliminate such conditions, it is extremely important to carry out the necessary diagnostics.
Due to this, the specialist establishes a provoking factor for such symptoms and prescribes treatment.
Often dizziness is a companion of more dangerous diseases. A rather popular condition is dizziness during cervical osteochondrosis.
This pathology often appears in the morning and is observed in patients who sleep on a high pillow.
Do not panic. Anxiety during sudden dizziness becomes a provoking factor for fainting or loss of balance.
When a person is worried about such unpleasant symptoms, you must sit down or lie down.
In order to improve blood flow in the brain, you should try to keep your head and shoulders at the same level. You also need to ventilate the room, and provide fresh air.
This will provide an opportunity to increase the supply of oxygen to the brain, which significantly improves the patient's condition.
In addition, do not forget about the simple recommendations. They provide an opportunity to prevent the formation of dizziness:
- In hot weather it is mandatory to use sunglasses and a hat.
- Take drinking water with you.
- Wear loose clothing. In order to avoid compression of the vessels that pass through the cervical region to the brain, as a result of which dizziness appears.
In a situation where similar symptoms manifest themselves in public places, you need to find a foothold. Concentrate on a fixed subject.
This will provide an opportunity to prevent fainting. When dizziness is noted constantly, you need to carry ammonia.
This tool helps in the shortest possible time to regain consciousness in this situation.
The most common methods of treatment of this pathology:
- Decoction of meadow clover. Increases tone, clears blood vessels and eliminates dizziness. 1 tsp dried flowers poured half a cup of boiling water and infused. It is necessary to use this remedy twice a day, 50 g per half hour before meals.
- Sage tea. Tones and improves the condition. In 0.5 liter of boiling water throw 4 tbsp. l flowers plants. Infused remedy at least 30 minutes and consumed before meals. In tea, you can add a small amount of honey.
- Tincture root devyasila. It removes fatigue, cleanses the body of bacteria, improves the functioning of the vestibular apparatus and stops dizziness. Raw materials are crushed and 1 pinch is filled with 0.2 l of boiling water. After 30 minutes, the tincture is filtered. It is used 4 times a day, dividing the product into equal parts.
- Tincture of parsley. Effective during vertigo. It is necessary to grind the seeds on a coffee grinder. On 1 tsp. raw material is taken 0.2 liters of boiling water. After 8 hours, the medium is filtered. Eat 50 g per day before meals.
- Simple kelp. It improves the immune system, cleanses the body of toxins and strengthens the central nervous system, causing dizziness to disappear. It must be consumed every day. In dry form, sea cabbage is consumed in 1 tsp. per day, squeezed fluid.
- Tea made from lemon balm, peppermint, mistletoe and linden. During violations in the functioning of the vestibular apparatus, experts advise to use this tool.
- Malaise and intense dizziness will disappear when such a mixture is constantly taken. Take onions, crushed in a meat grinder and filled with a mass of half a glass jar. The rest is filled with honey. The mixture is mixed and sent to the refrigerator for 5 days. Then this remedy is used every day on an empty stomach 2 tbsp. l During intense dizziness, this mixture is consumed 2 times a day.
- Infusion herbs Veronica. Drinks during nervous excitement and dizziness. At 0.25 g of boiling water is taken 1 tbsp. l dry raw materials. Infused in a thermos. Is taken before the meal in 100 g in the form of heat.
- Infusion of hawthorn flowers. In the presence of a pathological process caused by cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to use this remedy instead of tea. 5 tbsp. l raw materials are poured 1 liter of boiling water and infused. After 60 minutes, the tincture is necessary to drink. Recommend adding honey.
Effective use of tinctures:
- Garlic From the unpleasant symptoms that caused toxic substances inside the body, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, garlic tincture will be effective. 300 g of peeled garlic are taken, 0.5 liters of boiling water are crushed and poured. The composition is infused in a cool place for 1-2 weeks in the refrigerator.
- Hawthorn. With the improper functioning of the cardiovascular system of the brain in order to eliminate unpleasant symptoms helps such tincture. Buds of hawthorn (150 g), linden honey (50 g) and 700 g of boiling water are mixed. Vanilla and cinnamon are added. Used in 1 tbsp. l 10 minutes before meals.
- Chestnut. It improves the condition and regulates the functioning of the blood vessels in the brain. Chestnut buds are crushed and filled with heated water. At 2 tbsp. l raw material is taken 0.5 liters of hot water.
Put in a water bath and simmer the mixture for 15 minutes. When cool, add a small amount of vanilla and 2 tbsp. l honey Eaten before meals for 50 g.
Dizziness is often symptomatic of dangerous pathological processes.
Therefore, in order for therapy to be effective, it is extremely important to carry out such a diagnosis in order to establish the provoking factor of a similar condition.
Only in such a situation is it possible to eliminate unpleasant pathology.
The structure and function of the brain
The following sections of the brain are distinguished - the terminal brain, the diencephalon, the midbrain, the hindbrain, the medulla.
The final brain is represented by the hemispheres of the brain, as well as by structures such as the corpus callosum, olfactory brain and striatum. Hemispheres from the functional point of view are the most important parts of the brain due to the presence of a large number of centers of regulation of various functions. The hemispheres are formed by gray and white matter. The gray matter forms the cerebral cortex, and the white matter is located beneath it. White matter also contains gray matter in the form of nuclei. In this part of the brain are the cavity of the terminal brain - lateral ventricles. A large number of furrows and convolutions form a complex relief of the hemispheres.
In each hemisphere, there are shares that regulate the performance of certain functions:
- frontal lobe - movement, speech, thinking, emotions,
- temporal lobe - auditory sensations, smell, long-term memory, speech comprehension,
- occipital lobe - processing of visual information,
- parietal lobe - perception of heat and cold, pain.
The diencephalon is located directly beneath the cerebral hemispheres.
This part of the brain includes the following areas:
- Thalamic regionwhich includes the thalamus, epithalamus and metatalamus. Through the thalamus passes information from various receptors, which then goes into the cerebral cortex. Thus, the thalamus is involved in the formation of sensations.
- Hypothalamusin which there are such formations as the optic chiasm, the optic tract, the gray tubercle and the mastoid bodies. In this area are the center of thermoregulation, hunger and thirst, sexual behavior, wakefulness and sleep.
- Third ventricle is the cavity of the diencephalon.
The midbrain consists of two parts - the midbrain roof and the legs of the brain. He is responsible for binocular vision (the ability to perceive an image with both eyes and “fold” it into a common picture), regulation of muscle tone, accommodation (devicea) eye movement of the eye when turning the head.
In the hindbrain are located such sections as the bridge and the cerebellum. The bridge is a continuation of the medulla. A large number of nerves emerge from the bridge - trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulocochlear (the front door). The cerebellum is a department that is responsible for the coordination and regulation of movements, muscle memory. Thanks to the cerebellum, the human body can maintain balance.
The medulla is located between the posterior and spinal cord. It is also called brain bulbs. Here are the centers that provide such vital functions as heart activity, respiration, and the establishment of protective reflexes.
The brain membranes are a continuation of the membranes of the spinal cord and have a similar structure.
The brain is surrounded by the following meninges:
- Hard shell - this is the outer meninges.In some places it forms processes, in the place of discharge of which the sines of the hard shell are formed. Venous blood enters the sinuses from the veins of the brain, which is then sent to the jugular veins.
- Arachnoid is the medulla. This shell forms granulations (outgrowths).
- Soft (vasculara) shell. In the soft shell are blood vessels that are sent to the brain and nourish it.
Blood supply to the brain
In maintaining the functionality of the brain, blood supply is of paramount importance. The blood supply of the brain is arranged in such a way as to evenly distribute the blood flow in all parts of the brain. In the case of circulatory disorders include compensatory mechanisms.
The blood supply to the brain is provided by two main pairs of vessels - the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. About 80% of blood flow to the heart is provided by the carotid arteries and their branches. The branches of the vertebral arteries form the vertebrobasilar system, which is involved in the blood supply to the posterior brain regions.
The outflow of blood from the brain is carried out by the venous system, which includes superficial and deep veins. Superficial veins are necessary in order to collect blood from the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. The blood from the central gray nuclei and ventricles of the brain is sent to deep veins. Brain veins fall into the sinuses located in the dura mater. A feature of the sinuses is that they do not contain valves, are in a tight state of tension and do not fall down. This feature allows their outflow of blood regardless of changes in intracranial pressure. From the sinuses of the dura mater, blood is directed into the internal jugular veins. Further, there is an outflow of blood into the system of the superior vena cava.
Vestibular analyzer, structure and functions
Due to the fact that very often dizziness is caused by damage to the vestibular analyzer, it is important to know how it works and what functions it performs. The vestibular apparatus is an organ that is part of the inner ear and is responsible for the perception of a change in body position in space. The vestibular apparatus is responsible for balance.
The peripheral part of the vestibular analyzer is represented by a vestibule and three semicircular canals. The central part of the vestibular analyzer consists of nerve fibers, pathways, vestibular nuclei, subcortical and cortical centers.
On the threshold is the otolith apparatus, in which there are sacs lined with endolymph and receptor cells. Above the receptor cells is the otolith membrane, which contains otoliths (crystals). The otoliths mechanically irritate receptor cells, which send signals to the brain about a change in body position. Receptors of the otolith apparatus perceive information about linear acceleration and gravity. Each semicircular canal has an education at the end - an ampule that contains receptor cells. In the ampoule there is a cupula, which has the same density as the endolymph. The receptors of the semicircular canals are designed to perceive information about the angular acceleration.
From the receptors of the vestibule and the semicircular canals, impulses are directed through the vestibular nerve to the vestibular nuclei, located between the medulla oblongata and the bridge, to the cerebellum, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex.
Diseases of the vestibular apparatus as the cause of dizziness
Dizziness caused by diseases of the vestibular apparatus is called vestibular (true). The lesion of the vestibular apparatus can be both central and peripheral.
The most common causes of vestibular vertigo are:
- benign positional paroxysmal dizziness,
- vestibular neuritis,
- bilateral vestibulopathy,
- vestibular paroxysm,
- Meniere's disease.
- central vestibular disorders (syndromes).
Benign positional paroxysmal dizziness (DPPG) Is a pathological condition characterized by attacks of dizziness caused by a change in body position. DPPG is almost twice as common in women than in men. With age, the probability of occurrence of this condition increases. In most cases, it is not possible to establish the cause of the disease. Possible causes of this disease may be injuries, infectious diseases, complications of surgical interventions. It is known that the mechanism of occurrence of DPPG is associated with processes occurring in the semicircular canals of the ear, namely, cuprous lithiasis (the presence of particles that are in contact with the cupula of the semicircular canal) and canalolithiasis (the presence of otoliths that are freely in the lumen of the semicircular canal).
Typical manifestations of DPPG are considered to be:
- bouts of dizziness with a duration of about 30 seconds,
- nystagmus (involuntary rhythmic oscillatory movements of the eyeballs),
- oscillopsy (the illusion that objects are moving),
- appearance of the above symptoms when turning the head or body (especially in the morning).
Vestibular neuritis (vestibular neuropathy) - acute or chronic dysfunction of the vestibular apparatus due to inflammation of the vestibular department of the vestibulocochlear nerve, which is responsible for transmitting information from the inner ear to the higher divisions (brain). The disease can be unilateral or bilateral. Etiology (reason of appearance) is unexplained. There are assumptions about the relative viral etiology of this disease.
Clinical manifestations of vestibular neuritis are:
- sudden dizziness,
- the duration of dizziness can be from several hours to a week,
- increased dizziness when turning the head,
- nausea and vomiting,
- no impairment of hearing,
- spontaneous horizontal nystagmus.
Bilateral vestibulopathy is a bilateral lesion of the structure and function of the vestibular apparatus.
Bilateral vestibulopathy can be of two types:
- Idiopathic vestibulopathy (when the cause is unknown). It is possible that vestibulopathy is associated with dysfunction of the brain, polyneuropathy (multiple lesion of peripheral nerves in violation of their functions).
- Secondary vestibulopathy may occur with meningitis, taking ototoxic (leading to ear disruption) drugs, Meniere's disease.
Vestibular paroxysm occurs due to compression (squeezing) the eighth pair of cranial nerves (cochlear nerve). This disease is quite rare. Often this disease occurs due to compression of the nerve by the vessels or tumor, after surgery.
Clinically, this condition is manifested by the following symptoms:
- dizziness that lasts up to a few minutes
- acute and spontaneous dizziness,
- hearing loss during an attack,
- the occurrence of an attack when the head position changes,
- "Ticking" tinnitus.
Meniere's disease is a disease of the inner ear, which is characterized by an increase in the number of endolymph (fluid that is in the ear maze). The diagnosis of Meniere's disease is established in about 6% of cases of patients complaining of dizziness. In most cases, the disease is characterized by unilateral lesion.
The characteristic manifestations of Meniere's disease are:
- paroxysmal dizziness with duration from several minutes to several hours, in more rare cases, dizziness may last for several days,
- nausea and vomiting,
- hearing loss on the affected side,
- tinnitus (noise in ears),
- hearing impairment
- feeling of pressure in the ear.
Central vestibular disorders
The central vestibular disorders include the pathologies of various parts of the brain and blood vessels.
Most often among the central vestibular disorders occur:
- Cerebellar stroke. This disease is quite rare, but is very serious. When cerebellar stroke occurs, there is insufficient blood supply to its tissues, which leads to cell death. This condition arises as a result of thrombosis of the vessels feeding the cerebellum, rupture of the aneurysm in the area, and injuries. The cerebellar stroke can be recognized by the following symptoms - impaired motor coordination, tremor (shiver), impaired visual function.
- Scattered (multiplesclerosis - chronic autoimmune disease with damage to the nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord. In the early stages, the disease may be asymptomatic. This is due to the fact that with a small damage to the function of the affected area perform healthy cells. With the progression of the disease, a developed clinical picture is established, which is manifested by headache, ataxia, paresis, paralysis, impaired vibration sensitivity, a decrease in intelligence.
- Tumors of the posterior cranial fossa. Tumor processes in the posterior cranial fossa can affect the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, brain stem (medulla, midbrain and bridge). They can be primary and secondary. Primary tumors of the posterior cranial fossa appear when a tumor grows from the brain tissue. Secondary tumors appear in the presence in the area of metastasis of tumors of other organs and tissues. Among the tumors of the posterior cranial fossa, hemangioblastomas are found (a tumor that occurs in the tissues of the central nervous system), medulloblastomas (malignant tumor developing from embryonic cells), neuromas (benign tumor developing in the myelin sheath of nerves). Manifestations include increased intracranial pressure, cerebellar lesion, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, inaccuracy of movements, gait disturbances and instability, vomiting and nausea. Tumors of the posterior cranial fossa are often found in children.
- Thrombosis of the posterior cerebellar artery. This condition is manifested by speech disorder, ataxia, dizziness, eyelid ptosis, constriction of the pupil and retraction of the eyeball on the affected side.
- Tumor in the corner between the cerebellum and the bridge. The signs of this disease along with dizziness are increased intracranial pressure, hypotension, ataxia (lack of coherence in the movement of different muscle groups), pyramidal symptoms, symptoms of irritation of the trigeminal and facial nerves, hearing loss.
Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the inner ear. Dizziness is the main symptom of labyrinthitis and is characterized as follows - a sudden appearance, the appearance of a sensation of movement of surrounding objects in the direction of defeat. Usually dizziness is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, pallor, sweating, nystagmus. Also, this disease is characterized by fever, tinnitus, or hearing loss or loss.
Labyrinthitis occurs as a consequence of viral (cytomegalovirus, influenza, rubella, herpes virus) and bacterial (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Meningococcus, Mycobacterium) infections. Also, inflammation, trauma, middle ear diseases, and autoimmune processes may be involved in the occurrence of labyrinthitis.
Internal diseases as a cause of vertigo
Among the causes of dizziness, the presence of various internal diseases is of great importance. Internal diseases that can lead to dizziness can be heart and non-cardiac.
Pathological conditions in which dizziness appears are:
- heart rhythm disorders
- myocardial infarction,
- heart defects,
- orthostatic hypotension
- hyperventilation syndrome
- infectious diseases,
- taking certain medications.
Among cardiac arrhythmias that can cause dizziness, bradycardia and tachycardia are most common. Bradycardia is a decrease in heart rate of less than 60 / min. Tachycardia — an increase in heart rate above 100 / min.
Heart rhythm disorders usually occur for the following reasons:
- damage to the structures of the heart,
- toxic effects of certain substances (with intoxication, overdose of drugs),
- heart defects,
- functional changes of the heart as a result of the psychogenic factor,
- electrolyte imbalance.
Myocardial infarction is a necrosis of the heart muscle caused by its insufficient blood supply. This pathology arises due to the discrepancy between the need and the delivery of oxygen to the heart muscle, as a result of which the oxygen starvation process occurs. The main symptom of myocardial infarction is pain in the region of the heart, which lasts more than 20 minutes and can give to the shoulder, arm, shoulder blade, neck.
The pain may be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pallor of the skin.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle that leads to impaired cardiac activity. There are five forms of cardiomyopathy - dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and unclassifiable cardiomyopathy.
The main manifestations of this disease are:
- fast fatiguability,
- palpitation (heart palpitations),
- chest pains
- pale or bluish tinge of the skin.
Heart defects are congenital or acquired defects in the structure of the heart. Heart defects can concern valves, partitions, walls of cavities, vessels. Initially, heart defects can occur unnoticed. But after a while, dysfunctions begin, which are sometimes very dangerous. The first signs of heart disease are shortness of breath, dizziness, pallor, bluish tinge of the skin, developmental lag in children.
Orthostatic hypotension (orthostatic collapse)
This condition develops with a sharp change in body position, which leads to insufficient blood flow to the brain and a decrease in blood pressure. The background for the establishment of orthostatic collapse is a violation (weakeninga) vascular tonus. With a sharp rise, the redistribution of blood occurs mainly to the lower extremities. As a compensation mechanism, the heart rate and vasoconstriction increase. If this reaction is delayed, the blood pressure drops. This causes dizziness, "darkening in the eyes," a state of faintness and possible fainting.
Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension often occur in the morning, after eating, after taking a bath. This condition does not threaten human life. However, if you lose consciousness and fall, you may be injured. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension increases with age.
Hyperventilation is called rapid breathing, which leads to an imbalance between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The provoking factor for hyperventilation is shock, stress, hysteria. More than 50% of patients with panic disorder have this syndrome. Clinically, hyperventilation is manifested by shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, tremor, numbness of the extremities, and visual disturbances.
Anemia is a pathological condition characterized by a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia occurs in the following cases - impaired synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells, excessive destruction of red blood cells, loss of red blood cells.
The most common symptoms of anemia are:
- pallor of the skin,
- fast fatiguability,
- noise in ears.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system, which occurs due to the insufficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. Insulin deficiency, in turn, leads to an increase in blood glucose levels.
The main symptoms of diabetes are:
- constant thirst
- constant feeling of hunger
- copious and frequent urination,
- xerostomia (dry mouth),
- general weakness.
However, diabetes mellitus sometimes has a decrease in blood glucose levels. This condition occurs during the period of initiation of treatment with insulin, with an overdose of this drug, with insufficient nutrition, taking alcohol.
Signs of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) are:
- excessive sweating,
- anxiety and fear
- disorientation and confusion,
- lack of coordination of movements.
Dizziness can occur in almost all infectious diseases. Dizziness is especially pronounced in infections affecting the central or peripheral parts of the vestibular analyzer. Examples of such diseases can be meningitis, encephalitis. Dizziness appears in infectious diseases as a component of toxic syndrome. Often there is dizziness in cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is a helminthiasis caused by a cysticercus (pork tapeworm). In this disease, in about 50–60% of cases, brain damage occurs.
Acceptance of some medications
Virtually any drug can cause dizziness as a side effect. Medication may cause dizziness due to overdose, improper treatment prescription. Also, dizziness may occur as a result of individual intolerance to the drug.
There are drugs that have a toxic effect on different parts of the ear. This property of drugs is called ototoxicity.
The following groups of drugs can be ototoxic:
- anti-tuberculosis drugs
- some anti-inflammatory drugs
- drugs used for chemotherapy.
Visual impairment as a cause of vertigo
The organ of vision is also indirectly involved in maintaining balance along with the vestibular apparatus. In this regard, visual impairment in some cases can cause dizziness.
Eye pathologies that can cause dizziness include:
- Strabismus directly related to the violation in the work of the eye muscles. The main symptom of strabismus is a violation of the coordinated work of the eyes and, as a result, one or both eyes cannot be fixed on the same object. The accompanying symptoms of strabismus include dizziness, headaches, fatigue, deterioration of visual acuity.
- Nystagmus - This is a disease manifested by involuntary oscillatory movements of the eyeballs. Nystagmus may be physiological (when observing fast moving objects) and pathological (in the presence of diseases of the nervous system, in the presence of congenital problems with the eyes, in case of poisoning). Also, nystagmus can be divided into horizontal, vertical and rotational. According to the characteristics of nystagmus, you can make assumptions about the cause of dizziness.
- Glaucoma - This is a disease characterized by a constant or periodic increase in intraocular pressure, accumulation of intraocular fluid, which puts pressure on the retina and optic nerve. Glaucoma is manifested mainly in two forms - open-angle and closed-angle. The progression of this disease leads to irreversible loss of vision.
- Cataract - This is a partial or complete loss of transparency of the lens. The clouded lens is not able to refract light rays, which leads to deterioration or loss of vision. Most often, a cataract is a disease that occurs in older people and is associated with age-related changes in the structure of the lens.
- Decreased visual acuity. Visual acuity is one of the main indicators of the functional state of the eyes. It is the ability of the eyes to distinguish objects and their details at certain distances. If this ability deteriorates, then we speak of a decrease in visual acuity. Overstrain due to visual impairment
- Astigmatism - This is a deterioration in vision due to the violation of the shape of the eye. Astigmatism is manifested by eye fatigue, dizziness, headache, visual distortion of objects.
- Diplopia (eye muscle paralysis) due to the disorder of light refraction. Diplopia is manifested by double vision, dizziness, disorientation of orientation in space.
Damage to the cervical spine as a cause of dizziness
Cervicogenic vertigo is vertigo that occurs as a result of problems at the level of the cervical spine. Factors contributing to the emergence of this pathological condition, are a long stay in one position (at computer) spinal injuries. Most often, cervicogenic vertigo occurs in osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. Also, cervicogenic vertigo may be caused by abnormal development of some parts of the spine and skull - Arnold-Chiari anomaly, Kimmerle anomaly.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine
Osteochondrosis is a disease characterized by dystrophic disorders in the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine.
In osteochondrosis dizziness occurs as a result of compression of the vertebral arteries. In this case, there is insufficient blood flow to the brain and oxygen starvation.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine can occur for the following reasons:
- spinal injuries
- sedentary lifestyle,
- flat feet,
- violation of posture (slouch),
- weight lifting.
Symptoms of osteochondrosis of the cervical spine are:
- pain in the neck,
- noise in ears,
- fainting during a sharp turn of the head,
- blurred vision
- sleep disturbance,
Chiari anomaly is a congenital anomaly, which is characterized by a mismatch between the size of the posterior cranial fossa and the size of the brain structures located in this area, which can lead to their penetration into the large occipital foramen. With this pathology, the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid is hampered and its outflow is disturbed. Symptomatology is represented by dizziness, headaches, tinnitus, nystagmus, increased intracranial pressure, diplopia, loss of consciousness.
The Kimmerle anomaly is characterized by the appearance of additional formations on the arch of the first cervical vertebra, which compress the vertebral arteries, thereby disrupting the cerebral circulation. Clinically, this pathology is manifested by headaches, dizziness, a sudden "darkening in the eyes", fainting, weakness.
Impaired blood supply to the brain as a cause of dizziness
Blood supply to the brain is a complex process. In cases where there is a malfunction of the blood supply, mechanisms are included that compensate for the lack of blood supply. In difficult situations, compensatory mechanisms are not able to provide normal blood circulation and pathology develops.
Disruption of the blood supply to the brain can be:
- spicy - ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke,
- transient (transient ischemic attack), at which compensatory mechanisms quickly work and the duration of symptoms is not more than 1 day,
- chronic (encephalopathy).
The most common causes of impaired blood supply to the brain are:
- cerebral arteriosclerosis,
- arterial hypertension.
Dyscirculatory encephalopathy is a slowly progressive condition that is characterized by lesions of the cerebral vessels. The lesion may be diffuse or multifocal. With the progression of the disease, the blood supply to the brain tissue is deteriorating.
The following causes can lead to dyscirculatory encephalopathy:
- cerebral arteriosclerosis,
- hypertonic disease,
- vasculitis (inflammatory diseases of the vascular walls),
- vegetative vascular dystonia,
- violation of venous outflow, squeezing of veins by brain tumors.
In connection with the above pathological conditions, there is a violation of cerebral circulation, which, in turn, leads to insufficient delivery of oxygen to the brain tissues. The state of oxygen starvation, which increases with time, is established. In areas where there was insufficient trophism (cell nutrition), foci of leucoarea are formed (change in white matter density of the brain due to chronic circulatory disorders).
The manifestations of dyscirculatory encephalopathy include:
- vestibular disorders (dizziness, tinnitus),
- fast fatiguability,
- memory impairment
- hearing impairment
- orientation disorder in space,
- tremor, convulsions.
Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels is a disease in which atherosclerotic plaques form on the walls of cerebral vessels. In this state, a gradual narrowing of the vessel lumen occurs, which, in turn, leads to impaired blood circulation and oxygen starvation of cells and tissues.
Characteristic signs of atherosclerosis of the brain vessels are:
- memory impairment
- noise in ears,
- headache of varying intensity,
- blurred vision
- increased fatigue
- sleep disturbance.
Stroke is a condition characterized as an acute violation of cerebral circulation. Stroke can be ischemic (associated with impaired blood flow) and hemorrhagic (cerebral hemorrhage). 80% of strokes are ischemic. According to statistics, stroke is the second after CHD (coronary heart disease) cause mortality worldwide. A stroke is a condition that often leads to disability.
Manifestations of stroke depend on its stage and localization of the affected area of the brain. In some cases, the disease may be asymptomatic when collateral blood flow is activated, that is, the blood supply to the brain is carried out in circumferential ways.
The most characteristic signs of a stroke are:
- amaurosis - partial or complete loss of vision due to damage to the retina or optic nerve,
- hemiparesis (weakening of movements and muscle strength in the limbs of the right or left half of the body),
- nausea, vomiting,
- speech disorder (dysarthria),
- disturbance of consciousness
- blurred vision, nystagmus.
It is very important for a stroke to bring the patient to a medical facility as soon as possible, since with every minute the risk of serious complications increases.
Hypertension is an increase in blood pressure. Arterial hypertension can be primary or secondary. Primary hypertension is called an increase in blood pressure, the cause of which cannot be found out. Secondary hypertension develops as a result of a disease and is one of its symptoms. Increased blood pressure leads to a violation of the blood circulation of the brain and heart.
The main manifestations of high blood pressure are:
- headaches, especially in the back of the head,
- flickering "fly" before the eyes,
Dizziness does not always accompany diseases. In some cases, this symptom is temporary, representing the body's response to some factors. In such cases, dizziness disappears, with the elimination of these factors and their actions.
Physiological dizziness may occur in the following cases:
- poor dieting
- motion sickness
- blood donation
- change in atmospheric pressure
- alcohol intoxication.
With long-term diets, the body is depleted, which "deprived" of the elements necessary to maintain normal functioning. This is not about therapeutic diets, which are of particular importance in certain pathologies. Medicinal diets can not lead to dizziness, because they have sufficient calorie and food variety and are aimed at improving the patient's condition. Dizziness often occurs when dieting for weight loss without prior consultation with professionals in this field. Diets based on a single food product lead to dizziness, as well as diets that provide for a very small amount of food that does not cover the needs of the body.
Fasting is mainly manifested by dizziness, loss of consciousness, general malaise. This is due to the fact that food does not enter the body and energy reserves are depleted. During fasting, the energy costs that a person generates as a result of physical and mental activity are not covered and characteristic symptoms appear. Theoretically, therapeutic fasting can have a positive result in some pathological conditions, but all these points should be discussed with your doctor.
Motion sickness (seasickness, kinetosis) - this is a fairly common problem. This condition is accompanied by dizziness, nausea, vomiting, malaise. As a rule, motion sickness occurs when traveling by car, boat, or plane. Children swayed more often than anyone. This is due to the fact that the children's vestibular analyzer is not yet fully formed. In general, the mechanism for the onset of motion sickness is an imbalance between impulses entering the central nervous system from the vestibular apparatus and the visual analyzer.
Non-compliance with certain rules during blood donation
It is a question of donation and delivery of venous blood for various tests. A small amount of blood is usually taken for blood tests (a few milliliters), which can not adversely affect the human condition. However, in some cases, after this procedure, the patient may become ill, dizziness may appear, even fainting. This is usually associated with fear of the procedure or the type of blood, and this situation is especially common in children.
Sometimes donation, despite all the positive aspects, can lead to such unpleasant consequences as dizziness. As a rule, this happens because a relatively large amount of blood is lost in a short period of time. It is recommended not to make sudden movements after putting, not to overstrain, drink sweet tea.
Changes in atmospheric pressure
The human body is sensitive to changes in atmospheric pressure. Usually with a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure begins headache, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, decreased performance. Such symptoms can occur both with increasing and decreasing pressure. A rise to a greater height may be accompanied by dizziness due to the fact that with the rise the atmospheric pressure decreases, the partial pressure of oxygen in atmospheric air decreases. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, which leads to a state of hypoxia and dizziness.
Dizziness in this condition occurs as a result of interruptions in the functioning of the cerebellum.Dizziness and imbalance may be acute transient events as a result of consuming excessive amounts of alcohol, and may be chronic symptoms as a result of chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages. The acute effect of alcohol is manifested in a lack of coordination of movements and gait. This is due to the disruption of the interaction of brain structures responsible for the coordination of movements and the maintenance of balance.
Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic positional nystagmus and dizziness, which manifest themselves in two stages. At the first stage, alcohol diffuses (penetrates) in the inner ear, especially in the cupula, due to which there is a change in its specific weight, since the density of alcohol is lower than that of water. In the direct position of the head, nothing happens, but you only need to change the position of the body, dizziness and nystagmus are established. After some time, the same alcohol concentration is reached in the cupola and endolymph. At this point, the symptoms disappear. After about 6–8 hours, alcohol is resorbed from the inner ear system, primarily from the cupula, which becomes heavier than the endolymph. At this point, dizziness and nystagmus reappear (second phase).
The chronic effect of alcohol on the body damages the structures of the nervous system, especially the centers and ways that regulate balance and coordination of movements. This, in turn, leads to poor coordination of movements, balance, shaky and uncertain walk.
What doctor should I contact if I have vertigo?
Dizziness can be a symptom of diseases of various organs and systems. In this regard, the problem of vertigo can deal with a large number of diverse specialists.
Doctors who can be consulted in case of vertigo include:
- family doctor,
- ENT doctor (otorhinolaryngologist),
The method of treatment of pathology, leading to dizziness
Treatment methods for pathologies that lead to dizziness are aimed at improving the patient’s condition, preventing relapse (reappearances) attacks of vertigo.
In general, all methods of treatment of diseases leading to dizziness can be divided into two groups:
- conservative methods
- surgical methods.
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Along with the use of drugs, maneuvers have a greater efficiency, which have the goal of improving the patient's condition.
In the treatment of dizziness using the following maneuvers:
- Epley's maneuver - used in the treatment of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. This maneuver can not completely eliminate the problem with this disease (otolithiasis), but it allows them to move to other areas, which helps in eliminating dizziness. The maneuver is performed by specialized medical personnel, but can be performed at home, only with caution. Initially, the patient should sit straight on the couch. Then you need to turn your head toward the affected ear by 45 degrees and lie down. In this position, you need to lie about 60 - 120 seconds. Then turn the head in the direction of the healthy ear by 90 degrees. Together with the turn of the head is done and the turn of the body. As a result, the man lies on his side, and his face is turned to the floor. In this position, you need to lie down for 1 - 2 minutes. Then the patient again slowly becomes in the initial position. During the execution of the maneuver under the back you need to put a roller. The maneuver is carried out in order for the otoliths to move from the posterior semicircular canal to the threshold and undergo reabsorption.
- Semont's maneuver can also be performed with the help of a doctor or independently. The patient is in the original sitting position, turns his head toward the healthy ear and sits in that position. During the whole procedure, the position of the head remains fixed, only the position of the body changes. Further, the patient lies down on the affected side and is in this position for 1 - 2 minutes. Then the patient should lie down on the other side and also wait one to two minutes. After that, you need to take the starting position and only then straighten your head.
- Rotation method like "barbecue" or Lempert method is a modified version of the Epley maneuver. The purpose of the maneuver is to move the otoliths that are located in the horizontal semicircular canal on the threshold. Initially, the patient is in a supine position with his head turned in the direction of the healthy ear. This position is maintained for 30 - 60 seconds. Then the patient turns gradually to the side (towards the healthy ear), on the back, on the other side and again is in the starting position. The maneuver is recommended to repeat several times. With each turn of the body it is necessary to pause for 30 - 60 seconds.
Surgical treatment of the causes of dizziness can be performed using the following methods:
- Dissection of the vestibular nerve. The vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve is dissected in order to stop the transmission of a stream of impulses about balance. However, this function is compensated by a healthy ear. The operation can be complicated by hearing loss, since the vestibular and auditory nerve are in close proximity, therefore, it requires high qualification and specialization of the doctor.
- Shunting endolymphatic bag. The purpose of the operation is to separate the endolymphatic sac and endolymphatic duct, which leads to a decrease in the pressure of the endolymph. The operation is usually performed in case of Meniere's disease.
- Classical labyrinthectomy. This operation is performed in the absence of more benign treatment methods, in fact this is the last way out of this situation. This operation is radical and involves the complete removal of the maze. After that, the brain can no longer receive information from the component of the inner ear responsible for the sensation of gravity and changes in movement.
- Chemical labyrinthectomy. During this intervention in the middle ear cavity (drum cavity) drugs are introduced that are toxic to sensitive cells of the vestibular apparatus. As these drugs are usually used antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin). The drug is absorbed through a round window and leads to destruction (destruction) sensitive cells of the vestibular apparatus, as a result of which these cells can no longer send information to the brain.
- Laser destruction otolithic receptors of the vestibule and receptors of the semicircular canals allows to get rid of dizziness.
- Blocking the lumen of the semicircular canal contributes to blocking the movement of otoliths.
- Vision correction with visual impairment as the cause of vertigo, this symptom can be eliminated.
- Removal of tumors as a radical method of treating the causes of vertigo.
- Ginsberg operation it is carried out at a purulent labyrinthite. It begins with the opening of the cochlea and the vestibule, and then the semicircular canals.
- Labyrintotomy Neumann lies in the opening of the semicircular canals and the vestibule with uncomplicated labyrinthite.
- Vestibular implant. The introduction of the vestibular implant is one of the most recent methods of treating vestibular vertigo. This method is not yet available in the masses. A small number of such operations have been conducted in the world at the moment, but their high efficiency is confirmed.
- Chiari anomaly treatment technique is to increase the posterior cranial fossa, thus eliminating the compression of the brain structures and normalizing the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
- Kimmerle Anomaly Treatment Technique It consists in additionally removing the bow, which contributes to the normalization of blood flow and blood supply to the brain.
Traditional methods of treating dizziness
There are many decoctions, teas and infusions, the effectiveness of which has been proven by many years of experience in use. Practicing doctors approve treatment of vertigo folk remedies, but it is recommended to combine it with taking medications and only after consulting with a specialist.
The most famous are the following traditional methods that have a positive effect in the treatment of vertigo:
- Lemon balm tea. To make it, you need to grind one tablespoon of fresh or dried lemon balm leaves and pour 1 cup boiling water. Drink a drink should be when dizziness. Melissa normalizes cerebral circulation, improves brain function, relieves headache.
- Hawthorn tincture. It is necessary to finely chop 100 g of hawthorn buds, add to them 30 g of honey, 1 g of cinnamon, 1 g of vanilla and 700 ml of any brandy. Shake everything well and store in a warm and dark place. Drink one tablespoon half an hour before meals for 2 - 3 months. Hawthorn fruits contain vitamins, organic acids, fatty oils, choline. The active substances of hawthorn improve the coronary and cerebral circulation, eliminate dizziness. Frequent hawthorn intake causes drowsiness. Pregnant women should not receive hawthorn.
- Apple cider vinegar and honey tea. The drink is prepared with the following proportions - for one cup of boiling water, there are two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and a teaspoon of honey. It is advisable to drink the drink in the morning, immediately after waking up or before eating. Tea has a calming effect on the central nervous system, helps reduce cholesterol levels.
Well helps acupressure. It is necessary to press on the points located on the inner edges of the eyebrows, on the back and bottom edges of the ear lobes, at the base of the nose, above the upper edges of the ears and in the middle of the trestles (a small cartilaginous protrusion on the outer ear). You need to press for 4 to 5 minutes, then you can massage the entire occipital area.
Treatment with folk methods has the following advantages:
- harmlessness and absence of side effects (except for cases of individual intolerance),
- possibility of long-term use
- relatively inexpensive cost of medicinal herbs,
- availability (can be found in almost any pharmacy).
Why there is dizziness during pregnancy?
Dizziness during pregnancy can occur for many reasons that may be pathological or physiological. In some cases, this symptom occurs as a result of abnormal behavior of the pregnant woman, which may consist in overeating or, on the contrary, malnutrition, a passive lifestyle, smoking and drinking harmful drinks (alcohol, energy). Dizziness may also occur when the ambient temperature is high, in a stuffy room, which can lead to fainting.
Conditions that may cause dizziness during pregnancy are:
- Toxicosis of pregnancy. This condition occurs in almost half of pregnant women. Toxicosis manifested by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness. Pregnancy toxicosis usually disappears in the second trimester. In most women, these symptoms are short-term and slightly pronounced and are not considered as pathology. If the symptoms are extremely pronounced, the general condition of the woman is sharply deteriorating, there is a large weight loss, this can be a sign of serious metabolic disorders. In this case, you must seek medical attention.
- Anemia. Anemia is a condition that often accompanies pregnancy. In most cases in pregnant women, anemia is iron deficient. Her appearance contributes to the increased need for iron in the body of a woman in this period. Also a large role in the occurrence of anemia during pregnancy is played by insufficient intake of substances necessary for erythropoiesis (erythrocyte formation). This condition is characterized by weakness, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, pallor, dry skin and brittle nails.
- TORCH infections. The infections of this group include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes and other infections that can lead to pregnancy complications, fetal damage, intrauterine infections, fetal malformations. It is recommended to take tests for the presence of these diseases before pregnancy or at least in its early stages.
- Pre-eclampsia - This is a condition that can threaten the life of the fetus and the woman. This condition is manifested by a significant increase in blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, visual impairment. Preeclampsia can be complicated by eclampsia, which is characterized by a critical increase in blood pressure, CNS damage (central nervous system) kidney.
- Ectopic pregnancy - This is a pregnancy in which the development of a fertilized egg occurs outside the uterus. Localization of ectopic pregnancy can be in the ovary, fallopian tube, abdominal cavity. This condition is very dangerous due to the fact that entails bleeding. The clinical picture is represented by sharp and severe abdominal pain, weakness, dizziness, pallor. The main treatment for ectopic pregnancy is surgical.
In order to prevent the occurrence of such an unpleasant symptom as dizziness in a pregnant woman, the following preventive measures can be taken:
- balanced diet,
- frequent walks in the fresh air
- frequent airing of premises
- exclusion of bad habits
- timely examination by a doctor
- avoid stressful situations.
Why does dizziness and abdominal pain occur?
The combination of abdominal pain and dizziness is often found in diseases of the organs of the abdomen, injuries, tumors. In some cases, such symptoms occur in stressful situations, with prolonged mental stress. In any case, this condition requires medical intervention. Self-treatment and self-diagnosis should be excluded, as this may lead to undesirable consequences.
Abdominal pain is often accompanied by dizziness in the following pathological conditions:
- Sharp belly - This is a group of acute surgical diseases characterized by damage to the abdominal organs with the risk of peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum). Such diseases include acute appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, acute intestinal obstruction, spleen rupture, perforation of gastric and duodenal ulcers and other diseases. Clinical symptoms are very diverse and are most often manifested by sharp pains in various areas of the abdomen, fever, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, headache and dizziness, weakness.
- Tumors. Tumors of the abdomen can manifest pain and dizziness, especially in the last stages of the tumor with the presence of metastases in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding.GI bleeding (gastrointestinal tracta) usually classified as bleeding from the upper sections and bleeding from the lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.The most common causes of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract are gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, esophageal varices. Bleeding in the lower sections is usually associated with colitis, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, large intestine tumors. When bleeding a large amount of blood is lost, which leads to the development of anemia, one of the manifestations of which is dizziness.
- Diseases of the digestive tract. Such diseases include gastritis, cholecystitis, in which there is reflexive vertigo.
- Intestinal infections. The most common abdominal pains and dizziness are characterized by the following intestinal infections - rotavirus infection, dysentery, salmonellosis.
- Food poisoning.Food poisoning can occur due to the consumption of foods containing toxins of different origin, more often bacterial. Food poisoning can also be caused by the use of poisonous mushrooms and plants.
What causes dizziness in women?
Due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the female body is subject to specific physiological and pathological conditions, which are often accompanied by dizziness.
Causes of dizziness in women can be:
- Menstrual disorders, such as dysfunctional uterine bleeding, algomenorrhea, can cause dizziness in women. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding can lead to anemia and a gradual weakening of the body. Algomenorrhea can be primary and secondary. Primary algomenorrhea is associated with functional changes in the genitals. Secondary algomenorrhea accompanies the pathological changes of the pelvic organs. This pathological condition is characterized by severe and excruciating pain in the lower abdomen during the first days of menstruation, which are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, meteorism, fainting.
- Premenstrual syndrome - This is a complex of symptoms that appears a few days before menstruation and disappears during the first days. The clinical picture of premenstrual syndrome includes headache, dizziness, apathy, depression, aggressiveness.
- Anemia, associated with menstruation. In some women, the blood flow during menstruation is abundant, and the menstruation itself is long (more than 5 - 6 days), which gradually leads to the development of anemia.
- Infectious diseases of female genital organs can be caused by pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and can be accompanied by both symptoms that manifest themselves locally and also general symptoms (fever, weakness, dizziness).
- Menopause - This is a transitional period from a reproductive period of a woman to a post-reproductive one. In this period, the woman's body undergoes a hormonal adjustment. In general, this period is easily tolerated, but in some cases it is necessary to resort to hormone therapy.
Why may dizziness occur in a child?
Dizziness in a child is a serious and difficult problem, since it is sometimes quite difficult to understand that a child has dizziness, especially in an infant. In general, the causes of dizziness in children are similar to those in adults. Thus, dizziness in a child can be caused by vestibular and biblio-vascular causes.
The most common causes that may cause dizziness in a child are:
- increased intracranial pressure
- otitis media,
- vestibular neuritis,
- head injury,
- sharp labyrinthitis,
- epileptic seizures,
Dizziness often accompanies epileptic seizures. These are sudden and recurrent seizures of convulsions that result from disturbances in the electrical activity of the brain.
A child’s prolonged exposure to heat or direct sunlight can cause heat stroke. Heat stroke is a consequence of a violation of the body's thermoregulation process. This condition is manifested by vomiting, sudden dizziness, weakness, tachycardia, shortness of breath.
Dizziness in a child may be due to physiological reasons. The child feels bad when traveling by water, in the car, on the bus, on an airplane. This condition is called kinetosis or seasickness. The more it cracks, the more the child’s condition worsens. Provocateur dizziness is reading or playing on the phone while traveling. A false sense of dizziness may appear when feeling hungry. This condition results from a decrease in blood glucose levels. After eating this state disappears.
If a child has started a strange behavior with gait uncertainty, dizziness, falling (we are not talking about children who are just learning to walk) it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor for advice. Even if the attack of dizziness was a one-time. No need to wait for repeated attacks. It is better to make sure that nothing threatens the condition of the child. If the child has a dizzy spell for more than half an hour, you should call an ambulance.
Why is dizziness in older people?
Dizziness is a common complaint of the elderly at the consultations of doctors. In old age, most people have chronic diseases that can affect organs and organ systems to varying degrees. In this period of life, the body becomes weaker and more susceptible to various diseases.
Vertigo in older people can occur for many reasons:
- Circulatory disorders. The risk of circulatory disorders with age increases several times. States such as coronary artery disease, stroke, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, increased blood pressure, which are a consequence of impaired blood supply and appear more often in old age, often accompanied by dizziness.
- Diseases of the vestibular analyzer. The vestibular analyzer consists of a central and peripheral part. The defeat of any department of this analyzer is accompanied by dizziness. Examples of such lesions are labyrinthitis, benign positional paroxysmal dizziness, Meniere's disease. Often vestibular dizziness is accompanied by nystagmus, nausea, vomiting, weakness.
- Degenerative changes in the spine lead to squeezing of the nerve roots and blood vessels. Such states are observed in intervertebral hernia, cervical osteochondrosis.
- Neurological diseasesamong which the most common is Parkinson's disease. This disease manifests itself clinically with tremor, instability, dizziness, decreased muscle tone.
- Hormonal changeswhich mainly occur in women with age during menopause.
- Visual impairment. The frequency of visual impairment increases due to age-related changes. These disorders include presbyopia (lack of ability to view objects at a short distance), cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma.
- Social maladjustment, which includes the appearance of phobias, a decrease in physical abilities, and a change in social status. Anxiety, depression, irritability develops. Elderly people complain of dizziness, instability when walking, heaviness in the head.