Menstruation is the monthly rejection of the endometrium located inside the uterus, which is removed from the body with blood through the vagina through the cervix and the hole in the hymen. Everything about the first menstruation (synonym - menarche) can be learned from the mother or read in the educational literature about the monthly. The process begins after ovulation, when the mature egg has not been fertilized. The cycle repeats every 21-35 days.
Preparing the body for menstruation
During puberty in girls, a milky liquid begins to flow from the vagina (often seen in underwear). The discharge is slightly noticeable or abundant. These organs of the reproductive system begin to develop, and it should be expected that during the year the first monthly periods will go. For the entire period, girls can use daily sanitary pads without fragrances. But if the discharge has an unpleasant smell, a different color (greenish, yellowish), irritate the skin, you should go to the doctor.
On the physiological development of the child, although indirectly, climatic conditions also affect. In southern and eastern countries, girls are considered to be the age of 9 years for the onset of menstruation. In the northern states, it comes later. But it is important that they go monthly to 14.5-16 years.
The sequence of puberty girls:
- breast development
- hair growth under the arms and pubic hair,
- first menstruation.
The entire period of maturation takes about 2.5 years. However, after menarche, menstruation often occurs a second time in a few months. The cycle is stabilized in time for 3 years. Diet, relocation, stressful situation, health problems can affect the regularity of the monthly period in girls. Duration depends on the girl's physiology and ranges from 21 to 35 days. Themselves monthly should not go longer than 7 days, be too scanty (daub) or abundant (reminiscent of bleeding). The volume of selected blood does not exceed 150 ml.
Symptoms before the first menses:
- chest becomes sensitive, slightly swells,
- heaviness in the ovaries,
- discomfort or aching pain in the abdomen,
- sometimes mood swings.
The girl's body is preparing for menstruation: the amount of sex hormones increases in the mammary glands and reproductive organs, the ovaries become larger, and the canal expands in the cervix. Due to the lack of estrogen, one often wants to eat sweets, one should eat foods rich in carbohydrates with menstruation.
How menstruation proceeds
When the body produces sex hormones in the required amount, in the girl's ovary every month 1 egg matures and ovulation occurs. After that, the follicle shell breaks (pulling sensation in the lower abdomen on the right or left), and a white transparent liquid is vigorously exuded from the vagina. A mature egg moves along the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it must be implanted (attached) to the wall.
The entire ovulation period is considered the best time to conceive a child. If the egg cell is not fertilized by a sperm cell (male cell), after about 10-14 days, the upper layers of the endometrium begin to be torn off (peel off) and removed along with the menstrual blood.
The girl is in need of psychological support in the ongoing period, she should tell more about menstruation, reassure. At first, the menstrual cycle will go off in time between the first days of the month always a different number of days. With a stable duration, it will begin after the same period.
Critical days for a girl should proceed painlessly, the first menstruation is first smeared, then there is red blood, it ends with a daub. But it happens and in another way immediately menstruation is intensively allocated, and then gradually decreases. In case of violation of health, deviations from the accepted norms may occur, therefore, girls need to visit the pediatric gynecologist at least twice a year.
How to relive menstruation
When the first menstrual periods began, what will mother tell you? Recently, pediatric gynecologists are increasingly turning to patients with allergies in the region of the labia. For the first menstruation, girls are recommended to use hypoallergenic sanitary pads. These are all products with the absence of flavors, they should be made of soft materials. In addition, using them, it is easier for mother to control the nature of menstruation, color, volume, and so on.
Tampons are recommended to use after the onset of sexual activity. While the girl is not having sex, she can damage the hymen during insertion into the vagina. In addition, it is absorbed in the body with blood, increases in size and is difficult to extract outside.
It should be reminded to the daughter that tampons change every 1.5 hours, at least. This is necessary so that the infection inside the genital tract does not develop. If the girl goes in for sports and she has to use tampons, the mother should select the minimum sizes.
In the past century, only pads were recommended for girls. The reason is the retention of blood near the cervix and the complication of the output of exfoliated endometrium, which causes additional pain. Whether it will be so in a particular case of a girl is checked on personal experience, but her mother is recommended to ask her daughter again to help her choose the right hygiene products during her period.
What to do during menstruation:
- take a shower every day
- It should be washed at every change of gasket or tampon (if possible once in 1.5-2.5 hours).
The endometrium is separated by large fragments and so that they pass through the cervix, the uterus is strongly reduced, pushing the pieces. Because of this, the girl has a feeling of pain. She is advised to drink hot tea, lie back up or lean on your knees and elbows to reduce discomfort.
What not to do during menstruation:
- take hot baths
- lift weights
- be on a diet,
- to exercise, which involves the abdominal muscles,
- use only tampons.
After the age of majority, a girl cannot drink strong alcohol during menstruation, have sex, it is forbidden to perform surgery and beauty salon procedures.
To reduce the pain, it is impossible to lower the legs in hot water, to put a heating pad on the stomach - bleeding will open. If you apply ice, the girl may get inflammation of the internal organs. The medications help nonsteroidal drugs Ketonal, Nise. They are taken when severe pain lasts more than 12 hours. The next day, if she resumes again at the end of the pill, it is advisable to show her daughter to the doctor.
The first days after the menstrual period, the girl can continue emotional mood spikes, pain persists in the lower abdomen or convulsions occur, and her chest still remains sensitive. These signs disappear throughout the week.
Deviations from the norms of the menstrual cycle
If for the first time the girl began to have a month before the age of 8, or when they did not come to age 15, it is considered pathology. In this case, the mother should bring her daughter immediately to the specialist for examination. The cause of the deviation may be diseases of the endocrine or nervous system or associated with gynecology, ischemia.
If the menarche occurred earlier than the breast had developed, the girl may have cancer. A pediatric gynecologist should be contacted if the menstruation does not end at all or is too abundant. Bleeding can be through a coagulation disorder.
When hormonal imbalance in girls appear on the skin stretch marks in the form of red streaks. They are usually located in the chest, thighs, buttocks. Bad mood, dizziness, insomnia, memory impairment are accompanied by failure. Treatment with hormonal drugs is prescribed for short periods. They help the body to adjust the level of hormones, if the glands belonging to the endocrine system, they are produced in insufficient quantities.
Girls with neuralgia feel much more pain. Additionally, there may be vomiting or nausea, fainting. It is recommended to register with a neurologist and consult him every six months.
The direct duties of the mother include teaching the girl hygiene during and after menstruation. The child also needs to be told what a girl's monthly is, how to keep a calendar, what is fraught with early sex and so on in a trusting tone, without causing the child to disgust with everything concerning his growing up. After all, all this affects the future family life and is associated with the birth of children.